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Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of chemicals and activity for the Shallot



Type of Spiritual Experience


Altogether Dr Duke lists some 800 activities for shallots.  The activities are partly shown in the list below for those chemicals that are not yet on the site, otherwise, a chemical like zinc, for example, is simply cross referenced as zinc, because its activity is provided under the zinc heading.  We have tried to summarise some other major activity in the list below, but have concentrated on anti-pathogenitic activity, as much of the time the plant exerts its action via its ability to fight pathogens.


Shallots appear to be chelating agents of some very key heavy metals and contaminants.  Thus the bad news is that if your soil is contaminated, the shallot you are eating could contain some pretty toxic stuff.  The good news is that if they are this efficacious as chelators then they could be used as bioremedial plants and safely disposed of down some deep hole once they have done their stuff.

Furthermore, if grown on clean soil free of contaminants, they could chelate us

The main contaminants in Dr Duke’s sample were as follows

  • ALUMINUM Bulb 0.3 - 385 ppm
  • ARSENIC Bulb 0.002 - 0.076 ppm
  • BARIUM Bulb 4 - 28 ppm
  • BROMINE Bulb 1 - 15 ppm
  • CADMIUM Bulb 0.005 - 0.38 ppm
  • ETHANOL Bulb:
  • FLUORINE Bulb 0.04 - 0.8 ppm
  • LEAD Bulb 0.01 - 1.4 ppm
  • LITHIUM Bulb 0.152 - 0.324 ppm
  • MERCURY Bulb 0.001 ppm;
  • METHANOL Bulb:
  • NICKEL Bulb 0.05 - 2.5 ppm Seed 0.03 - 4 ppm
  • RUBIDIUM Bulb 0.14 - 6.6 ppm
  • SILVER Bulb 0.038 - 0.054 ppm
  • STRONTIUM Bulb 57 - 162 ppm
  • TITANIUM Bulb 0.38 - 11 ppm
  • ZIRCONIUM Bulb 0.76 - 1 ppm

In order to reinforce these findings, Dr Duke also has activity that shows that shallots can be used as an antidote to a number of the same substances, plus a few extra

  • Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate
  • Antidote (Acetaminophen) 10 g/16hr/man/orl
  • Antidote (Aluminum)
  • Antidote (Cadmium)
  • Antidote (Hypoglycin-A)
  • Antidote (Lead)
  • Antidote (Mercury)
  • Antidote (Paracetamol)
  • Antidote (Paraquat)

A description of the experience

Dr. Duke's  Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases  - Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Allium cepa L. (Liliaceae) -- Onion, Shallot


5-HEXYL-CYCLOPENTA-1,3-DIONE Bulb: Antiseptic; Pesticide

5-OCTYL-CYCLOPENTA-1,3-DIONE Bulb:  Antiseptic; Pesticide

ABSCISSIC-ACID Bulb: Juvabional; Pesticide; Phytohormonal [Any of various hormones produced by plants that control or regulate germination, growth, metabolism, or other physiological activities. Also called phytohormone.]

ACETIC-ACID Bulb: Antibacterial 5,000 ppm; Antisalmonella [Salmonella is a genus of bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Strains of Salmonella cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and food poisoning (Salmonellosis)]; Fungicide; Pesticide; Verrucolytic [verrucas are warts caused by viruses]

ALANINE Bulb 330 - 8,597 ppm   Antioxidant; Cancer-Preventive; Oxidant

ALLICIN Bulb:   Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor 500 uM; Allergenic; Amebicide 30 ug/ml; Anthelmintic; Antiaggregant 0.1-1 uM; Antiatherosclerotic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn; Antibacterial 500 ug/ml MIC=27 ug/ml; Antibiotic; Anticholinesterase 500 uM; Antidiabetic; Antiflu; Antiglaucomic; Antiherpetic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic 31+ uM; Antileukotriene; Antilymphomic; Antimutagenic; Antineuralgic; Antioxidant 1.8 ug/ml; Antiplatelet; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin IC67=50 uM; Antiradicular 1.8 ug/ml; Antisarcomic; Antiseptic; Antishigellic; Antistaphylococcic MIC=27 ug/ml; Antitriglyceride 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn; Antitubercular MIC=1.67 mg/ml; Antitumor; Antiviral; Apoptotic 31+ uM; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=56 uM gpg; Candidicide MIC 7 ug/ml; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Fungicide; Gram(+)icide 8-12 ppm; Gram(-)icide; Hepatotoxic 100 mg/kg/day (=500 cloves a day); Hypocholesterolemic 0.05-0.1 mg/kg orl hmn IC37-72=162 ug/ml IC50=9 uM; Hypoglycemic 0.1 mg/kg; Hypolipidemic ID50=10 uM; Immunostimulant; Insecticide; Insulin-Sparing 100 mg/kg/man; Larvicide; Lipolytic 4-6 mg/day; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor ED=25 ug/ml; Mucokinetic; Mycobactericide MIC=1.67 mg/ml; Nematicide; NO-Inhibitor IC50=2.5-5 uM; Papain-Inhibitor 500 uM; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Prooxidant; Prostaglandin-Synthetase-Inhibitor; Succinate-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor; Trichomonicide; Urease-Inhibitor; Vibriocide; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor

ALLIIN Bulb:   Antiaggregant IC100=60 ug/ml; Antibacterial; Antibiotic; Antidiabetic 200 mg/kg; Antihepatotoxic 0.5 ug/ml; Antineuralgic; Antioxidant; Antiplatelet; Antiradicular; Antisarcomic 1-3 mg ims rat; Antithrombotic; Antitumor; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic; Immunostimulant; Lipolytic 200 mg/kg orl rat 7-11 mg/day; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Squalene-Monooxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=120 uM/l

ALLYL-PROPYL-DISULFIDE Bulb: Hypoglycemic; Insulin-Sparing 125 mg/kg/man; Occuloirritant

ALPHA-AMYRIN Bulb:  Analgesic; Antiedemic IC43=40 mg/kg ipr rat; Antiinflammatory IC71=1,000 ppm orl; Antinociceptive; Antitumor; Antiulcer; Cytotoxic 50-400; Gastroprotective; Hepatoprotective; Insectifuge

ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL Bulb 0.4 - 30 ppm [Vitamin E]

ARGININE Bulb 1,580 - 17,222 ppm [amino acid]

ARSENIC Bulb 0.002 - 0.076 ppm

ASCORBIC-ACID Bulb 60 - 2,703 ppm Leaf 390 - 5,000 ppm [vitamin C]

ASPARAGINE Bulb: Antisickling; Diuretic

ASPARTIC-ACID Bulb 640 - 6,967 ppm  Antimorphinic; Neuroexcitant; Roborant

BENZYL-ISOTHIOCYANATE Bulb:  Albuminurigenic; Allergenic; Anthelmintic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antibiotic; Antimutagenic; Antineoplastic; Antinitrosaminic; Antitumor; Antiviral; Flatulent; Fungicide; Herbicide IC100=0.4 mM; Insecticide; Irritant; Laxative 90 mg cow; Nematicide 0.3-6 mM; Pesticide; Viristat

BETA-CAROTENE Bulb 52 ppm; Flower 28 ppm; Leaf 12 - 158 ppm [Vitamin A]


Androgenic; Angiogenic; Anorexic; Antiadenomic; Antiandrogenic; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer (Cervix); Anticancer (Lung); Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant; Antifertility; Antigonadotrophic; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic; Antilymphomic; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM; Antiprogestational; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks; Antiprostatadenomic; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Lung); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Caspase-8-Inducer; Estrogenic; Febrifuge; Gonadotrophic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide; Spermicide; Ubiquiot; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat

BORON Bulb 1 - 45 ppm  mineral

CAFFEIC-ACID Bulb: see link

CALCIUM Bulb 200 - 3,008 ppm mineral

CALCIUM-OXALATE Bulb:  Emetic; Inflammatory; Laxative; Lithogenic

CAMPESTEROL Bulb:  Antioxidant IC37=10 uM; Hypocholesterolemic

CARBOHYDRATES Bulb 73,200 - 798,000 ppm Leaf 47,000 - 603,000 ppm

CATECHOL Bulb:  Allelochemic IC50=0.65 mM; Allergenic; Anticancer (Breast); Antigonadotropic; Antioxidant; Antiseptic; Antistomatitic; Antithiamin; Antithyreotropic; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Carcinogenic 0.8% diet 2% diet; Co-carcinogenic; Convulsant; Dermatitigenic; Herbicide; Pesticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer; Tumor-Promoter <0.2% diet

CHOLINE Bulb 830 ppm; see link

CHROMIUM Bulb 0.057 - 4 ppm Seed 4.8 ppm; mineral

CITRIC-ACID Bulb: Allergenic; Alpha-Amylase-Inhibitor; Antiaphthic 20,000 ppm; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticalculic; Anticoagulant; Antileishmanic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Disinfectant; FLavor FEMA 370-4,400; Hemostat; Irritant; Laxative?; Litholytic; Mycobactericide; Odontolytic; Refrigerant

COBALT Bulb 0.001 - 0.2 ppm Seed 2.5 ppm; mineral

COPPER Bulb 0.3 - 11 ppm Seed 18.2 ppm; mineral

CYCLOALLIIN Bulb:  Antiaggregant; Fibrinolytic; Lachrymatory

CYCLOARTENOL Bulb:  Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic 2-5 mg/man; Antistaphylococcic; Hypocholesterolemic; Pesticide; Ubiquiot

CYCLOEUCALENOL Bulb:  Antibacterial; Antistaphylococcic; Pesticide

CYSTEINE Bulb: amino acid

CYSTINE Bulb 210 - 2,289 ppm Adjuvant; Antihomocystinuric

DIMETHYL-DISULFIDE Bulb:  Antithyroid; Perfumery Fragrance

DIPHENYLAMINE Bulb 14 - 11,000 ppm  Antidiabetic 10 mg/kg orl rbt; Hypoglycemic; Nephrotoxic 35 mg/day (=100 g onion)

ETHANOL Bulb:  Allergenic; Anesthetic 4,000 orl cat 6,000 orl rat; Anhydrotic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Antipruritic; Antiseptic; CNS-Depressant; Expectorant; Hepatotoxic; Hypertensive >1 drink/day; Hypnotic Antidote=Naloxone; Hypocalcemic 4,000 orl rat; Hypotensive 1 drink/day; Mucotropic; Neurolytic; Pesticide; Rubefacient; Sclerosant; Surfactant; Teratogenic 6,000 orl dog; Tremorilytic; Ulcerogenic 5 ml/kg (50%) orl rat

FAT Bulb 1,000 - 36,079 ppm Leaf 6,000 - 77,000 ppm

FERULIC-ACID Bulb:  see link

FIBER Bulb 4,400 - 126,000 ppm Leaf 11,000 - 141,000 ppm

FLUORINE Bulb 0.04 - 0.8 ppm

FRUCTOSE Bulb 65,600 - 162,600 ppm  Antialcoholic; Antidiabetic; Antihangover; Antiketotic; Antinauseant; Laxative; Neoplastic; Sweetener 2 x glucose

FUMARIC-ACID Bulb: Acidulant; Antidermatitic; Antihepatocarcinogenic IC100=1% (diet); Antioxidant; Antipsoriac; Antitumor; FLavor FEMA 50-3,600

GLUCOSE Bulb 102,000 - 158,600 ppm Acetylcholinergic; Antiedemic; Antihepatotoxic; Antiketotic; Antivaricose; Hyperglycemic; Memory-Enhancer

GLUTAMINE Bulb: amino acid

GLYCINE Bulb 490 - 5,341 ppm amino acid

GLYCOLIC-ACID Bulb:  Cholesterolytic; Diuretic; Hepatotonic; Irritant

HISTIDINE Bulb 190 - 2,071 ppm amino acid

IRON Bulb 2 - 135 ppm Leaf 34 - 436 ppm Seed 235 ppm; mineral

ISOLEUCINE Bulb 420 - 4,578 ppm amino acid

KAEMPFEROL Bulb:  see link

LEUCINE Bulb 410 - 4,469 ppm  amino acid

LINOLEIC-ACID Seed Oil: see link

LITHIUM Bulb 0.152 - 0.324 ppm Antidepressant; Antihyperthyroid; Antimanic; AntiPMS; Antipsychotic; Antischizophrenic; Antiviral; Cholinergic; Deliriant; Natriuretic; Nephrotoxic

LYSINE Bulb 560 - 6,104 ppm amino acid

MAGNESIUM Bulb 76 - 1,230 ppm mineral

MALIC-ACID Bulb: Leaf:  Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Antifibromyalgic 300 mg 3x/day; Antioxidant Synergist; Antiseborrheic; Antiseptic; Antitubercular; Antitumor; Bacteristat; Bruchiphobe; Hemopoietic; Laxative?; Mycobactericide; Pesticide; Sialogogue

MANGANESE Bulb 1 - 38 ppm Seed 19.4 ppm; mineral

METHANOL Bulb:  Antidote =Sodium-bicarbonate; AntiHIV EC50=<20 ug/ml

METHIONINE Bulb 100 - 1,090 ppm amino acid

MOLYBDENUM Bulb 0.1 - 2.3 ppm mineral

MUFA Bulb 230 - 2,230 ppm  Allergenic; Anemiagenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery

MYRISTIC-ACID Bulb 10 - 100 ppm  Antioxidant IC71=60; Cancer-Preventive; Cosmetic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide

NIACIN Bulb 1 - 75 ppm Leaf 7 - 90 ppm Vitamin B3

OLEANOLIC-ACID Bulb:  Abortifacient; Antiallergic; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Anticarcinomic; Anticariogenic; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat; Antifertility; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antihepatotoxic; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg; Antileukemic; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml; Antisarcomic; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM; Antitumor; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Kidney); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Pancreas); Antiulcer >carbenoxolone; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor; Beta-Blocker; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg; Cancer-Preventive; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Diuretic; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM; Hepatoprotective; Hypolipemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Leucocytogenic; NF-kB-Inhibitor; Phagocytotic; Piscicide; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative; Uterotonic; Vasopressor

OLEIC-ACID Bulb 230 - 2,230 ppm Seed Oil:  5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Allergenic; Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Anemiagenic; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antiinflammatory IC50=21 uM; Antileukotriene-D4; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic 5 ml/man; Dermatitigenic; FLavor FEMA 1-30; Hypocholesterolemic; Insectifuge; Irritant; Percutaneostimulant; Perfumery; Propecic

OXALIC-ACID Bulb 10 ppm;  Acaricide; Antiseptic; CNS-Paralytic; Fatal; Hemostatic; Irritant; Pesticide; Renotoxic; Varroacide

P-COUMARIC-ACID Bulb:  Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity); Allelopathic; Antibacterial; Anticlastogen; Antifertility; Antihepatotoxic; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA IC24=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antitumor; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Choleretic; Cytotoxic; Diaphoretic?; Fungicide; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=5 mM; Pesticide; Prostaglandigenic; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=3,650 uM

PALMITIC-ACID Bulb 240 - 2,325 ppm  5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antialopecic; Antiandrogenic; Antifibrinolytic; Antioxidant IC40=60; FLavor FEMA 1; Hemolytic; Hypercholesterolemic; Lubricant; Nematicide; Pesticide; Propecic; Soap

PANTOTHENIC-ACID Bulb 1 - 16 ppm [Vitamin B5]

PECTIN Bulb:  Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day; Antibacterial; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic; Antienteritic; Antigallstone; Antigastritic; Antilithic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic; Antiobesity; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Prostate); Antitussive; Antiulcer; Cancer-Preventive; Chemopreventive; Demulcent; Fungicide; Hemostat; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic; Peristaltic; Pesticide

PHENYLALANINE Bulb 300 - 3,270 ppm amino acid

PHLOROGLUCINOL Bulb 100 ppm;  Antiseptic; Antispasmodic 480 mg/day/orl man; Antitumor-Promoter; Cancer-Preventive; Decalcifier; Fungicide; Goitrogenic; Pesticide

PHOSPHORUS Bulb 275 - 4,038 ppm Leaf 310 - 5,513 ppm mineral

PHYTOSTEROLS Bulb 150 - 1,455 ppm Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic

POTASSIUM Bulb 1,514 - 22,164 ppm mineral

PROLINE Bulb 370 - 4,033 ppm amino acid

PROSTAGLANDIN-A-1 Bulb 1 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Hypotensive

PROTEIN Bulb 10,940 - 162,000 ppm Leaf 18,000 - 231,000 ppm

PROTOCATECHUIC-ACID Bulb 4,500 - 17,540 ppm  Allergenic; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Anticlastogen; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic; Antiinflammatory; Antiischemic; AntiLegionella; Antileukemic; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml; Antimutagenic; Antiophidic; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM IC75=200 ug/ml; Antiradicular; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Mouth); Antitumor (Skin); Antitussive; Antiviral; Apoptotic; Carcinogenic; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat; Fungicide 500 ug/ml; Glutathione-Depleting; Hepatotoxic; Immunostimulant; Nephrotoxic; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Prostaglandigenic; Secretogogue; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml; Ubiquiot

PUFA Bulb 620 - 6,005 ppm Antiacne; Antieczemic; AntiMS; Antipolyneuritic

PYROCATECHOL Bulb: Anticancer (Breast); Antihepatotoxic; Antioxidant; Antiseptic; Cardiovascular 100 mg/kg ivn dog; CNS-Stimulant 5 mg/kg ivn cat; Dermatitigenic; Dye; Insectifuge; Nematicide; Pesticide; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer

QUERCETIN Bulb 48,100 ppm; 11B-HSD-Inhibitor; 5-Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50 (uM)=4; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC70-96=10 uM; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml IC50=0.344 uM IC50=0.84 ug/ml cow; Allelochemic IC82=1 mM; Allergenic; Analgesic; Antiaflatoxin IC50=25 uM IC50=7.5 ppm; Antiaggregant 30 uM IC50=55 uM; Antiaging; Antiallergic IC50=14 uM; Antialzheimeran; Antianaphylactic; Antiangiogenic; Antiarthritic; Antiasthmatic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticarcinomic (Breast) IC50=1.5 uM; Anticariogenic ID50=120 ug/ml; Anticataract; Anticolitic 400 mg/man/3x/day; Anticomplementary; AntiCrohn's; Anticystitic 1,000 mg/day/4 weeks; Antidepressant; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antielastase IC50=0.8 ug/ml; Antiencephalitic; Antiescherichic; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant IC52=<1,000 ppm diet; Antifibrosarcomic; Antiflu; Antigastric; Antigonadotropic; AntiGTF ID50=120 ug/ml; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic 48-150 ug/ml; Antihistaminic IC50=<10 uM; AntiHIV; Antihydrophobic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory 20-150 mg/kg; Antileishmanic IC50=64; Antileukemic 5.5-60 uM IC50=10 uM IC50=>10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene; Antilipoperoxidant IC67=50; Antimalarial IC50=1-6.4 ug/ml; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=0.62 ug/ml ID50=2-5 nM; Antimyocarditic; Antinitrosaminic; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant 4.7 x Vit. E ED50=2.3 uM IC47=10 uM IC96=300 ppm; Antipancreatitic; Antiperiodontal; Antiperistaltic; Antipermeability; Antiperoxidant; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antiplasmodial IC50=13-64; AntiPMS 500 mg/2x/day/wmn; Antipodriac; Antipolio; Antiproliferant 10 nM; Antiprostanoid; Antiprostatitic; Antipsoriac; Antiradicular IC50=4.6 uM; Antispasmodic; Antistreptococcic ID50=120 ug/ml; Antithiamin; Antithrombic; Antitrypanosomic IC50=13; Antitumor 10 uM; Antitumor (Bladder); Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary); Antitumor (Skin) 20 uM; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antiviral 48-150 ug/ml IC50=10 uM; Apoptotic 20-60 uM; ATPase-Inhibitor; Bacteristat 10 mg/ml; Bradycardiac; Calmodulin-Antagonist; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Capillariprotective; Carcinogenic 40,000 ppm (diet) mus; Catabolic; COMT-Inhibitor; Copper-Chelator; COX-2-Inhibitor <40 uM; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor; Cytochrome-P450-1A2-Inhibitor; Cytotoxic ED50=70 ug/ml IC82=100 ug/ml; Deiodinase-Inhibitor; Diaphoretic?; Differentiator 5.5 uM; Estrogenic 10% genistein; Fungicide; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor ID50=120 ug/ml; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 5,000 ppm (diet) rat; Hepatoprotective; HIV-RT-Inhibitor IC50=<1 ug/ml; Hypoglycemic 100 mg/kg orl rat; iNOS-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM; Inotropic; Insulinogenic; Juvabional; Larvistat 8,000 ppm diet; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC11=1.25 mM IC50=0.1-5 uM; MAO-A-Inhibitor; Mast-Cell-Stabilizer; Metal-Chelator (Copper); Metalloproteinase-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; MMP-9-Inhibitor 20 uM; Mutagenic; NADH-Oxidase-Inhibitor; NEP-Inhibitor IC50=>42 uM; Neuroprotective 5-25 uM; NF-kB-Inhibitor; NO-Inhibitor IC50=20 uM IC>50=125 uM; NO-Synthase-Inhibitor 5-50 uM; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor <10 uM; P450-Inducer 5 uM; P450-Inhibitor 50-100 uM; Pesticide; PGE2-Inhibitor; Phospholipase-Inhibitor; Plasmodicide; Proliferant; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 40 ug/ml; Protein-Kinase-C-Inhibitor; PTK-Inhibitor 0.4-24 uM; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 13 uM 6 uM; Teratologic; TNF-alpha-Inhibitor IC50=3.11 uM; Topoisomerase-I-Inhibitor IC50=12.8 ug/ml IC50=42 uM; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1-6.9 ug/ml IC50=23-40 uM; Tumorigenic 0.1% diet orl rat/yr; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=70 uM; Tyrosine-Kinase-Inhibitor; Vasodilator; VEGF-Inhibitor; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor 3.1 uM IC50=10.6 ug/ml IC50=>0.4 ug/ml

QUERCETIN-3-O-BETA-D-GLUCOSIDE Bulb 40 ppm; Antiinflammatory; Cancer-Preventive

QUINIC-ACID Bulb: Choleretic

RAFFINOSE Bulb: Flatugenic

RIBOFLAVIN Bulb 0.4 - 15 ppm Vitamin B2

RUTIN Bulb: 5-HT-Inhibitor; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml; Allelochemic; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic; Antiapoplectic; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticancer; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man; Anticataract; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia; Antidermatitic; Antidiabetic; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day; Antihematuric; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic; Antiherpetic; Antihistaminic; Antihypertensive; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml; Antimelanomic; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic; Antinociceptive; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM IC54=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal; Antipurpuric; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor; Cancer-Preventive; Capillariprotective; Catabolic; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM; Estrogenic?; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypotensive; Immunomodulator; Insecticide; Insectiphile; Juvabional; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM; Mutagenic; Myoprotective; Myorelaxant; Oviposition-Stimulant; PAF-Inhibitor; Pesticide; Protisticide; Radioprotective; Sunscreen; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml; Vasodilator; Vasopressor

S-METHYL-CYSTEINE-SULFOXIDE Bulb: Antidiabetic; Antihypercholesterolemic

SELENIUM Bulb 0.001 - 0.003 ppm  mineral

SERINE Bulb 350 - 3,815 ppm see link

SILICON Bulb 1 - 75 ppm  Antiarteriosclerotic; Antionychyotic; Antiosteoporotic; Cardioprotective

SILVER Bulb 0.038 - 0.054 ppm  Antibacterial; Astringent; Pesticide

SINAPIC-ACID Bulb:  Antibacterial; Antihepatotoxic; Antioxidant IC27=30 ppm; Antiperoxynitrite IC39=5 uM IC60=20 uM IC75=100 uM; Cancer-Preventive; Fungicide; Pesticide

SODIUM Bulb 8 - 2,052 ppm mineral

SPIRAEOSIDE Bulb 10,000 - 11,300 ppm  Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC51=10 uM IC9=1 uM; Antioxidant; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer

STEARIC-ACID Bulb 20 - 195 ppm  5-Alpha-Reductase-Inhibitor; Cosmetic; FLavor FEMA 2-4,000; Hypocholesterolemic; Lubricant; Perfumery; Propecic; Suppository

STIGMASTEROL Bulb:  Antihepatotoxic; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM; Antiviral; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic; Ovulant; Sedative

SUCCINIC-ACID Bulb:  Additive FEMA 200-2,000; Antifeedant; Bruchiphobe; Cancer-Preventive; Dye; Perfumery; Pesticide

SUCROSE Bulb 82,600 - 145,900 ppm  Aggregant; Antihiccup 1 tsp; Antiophthalmic; Antioxidant; Atherogenic; Collyrium; Demulcent; Flatugenic; Hypercholesterolemic; Preservative; Sweetener 1 x sucrose; Triglycerigenic; Uricogenic; Vulnerary

SULFUR Bulb 80 - 4,075 ppm mineral

TARTARIC-ACID Bulb:  Acidifier; Additive; Antioxidant Synergist; FLavor FEMA 500-10,000; Irritant; Sequestrant

THIAMIN Bulb 0.3 - 6 ppm Leaf 0.5 - 6.4 ppm [Vitamin B1]

THREONINE Bulb 280 - 3,052 ppm  Antioxidant?; Antiulcer; Essential; FLavor FEMA 1,000

TRIGONELLINE Seed 13 ppm;  Anticancer (Cervix); Anticancer (Liver); Antihyperglycemic; Antimigraine; Antiseptic; Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Liver); Epidermal-Stimulant; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic 50 mg/kg orl rat 500-3,000 mg/man/day; Mutagenic; Osmoregulator; Pesticide; Propecic

TRYPTOPHAN Bulb 170 - 1,853 ppm  amino acid

TULIPOSIDE-A Root: Antiallergic

TYROSINE Bulb 290 - 3,161 ppm amino acid

VALINE Bulb 270 - 2,943 ppm amino acid

VANILLIC-ACID Bulb 258 ppm;  Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l; Allelopathic; Anthelmintic; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml; Anticancer; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin; Antiseptic; Antisickling; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Ascaricide; Cancer-Preventive; Choleretic; Fungicide; Immunosuppressant; Laxative; Pesticide; Ubiquiot

WATER Bulb 866,000 - 918,000 ppm Leaf 922,000 ppm;

XYLITOL Bulb: Anticariogenic?; Antihemolytic; Antiplaque?; Bilirubinolytic; Diuretic; Flatulent; Hepatoprotective; Hyperuricemic; Laxative; Sweetener 1 x sucrose

XYLOSE Bulb: Antidiabetic; Diagnostic; Dye

ZINC Bulb 2 - 53 ppm Seed 34 ppm;   mineral


The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items


Activities and commonsteps



Alcoholism treatments
Aluminium poisoning
Androgen imbalance
Antihelminthic agent
Asthma and allergy
Bacterial infection
Being badly wounded
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Blood circulatory system disease
Blood thinners
Cadmium poisoning
Common cold
Copper imbalance
Cough medicine
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
Estrogen imbalance
Extreme pain
Eye disease treatments - glaucoma
Food poisoning
Fungal infection treatments
Heart arrythmia
Heart failure and coronary heart disease
Heartburn and ulcers
Hepatitis virus infection
Herpes simplex
Intestine disease
Lactation failure
Lead poisoning
Lymes disease
Mercury poisoning
Mouth and tooth disease
Muscle diseases
Nickel poisoning
Pancreas disease
Reproductive system disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Serotonin imbalance
Skin diseases
Sleep deprivation, insomnia and mental exhaustion
Stomach disease
Thyroid disease
Viral infection


Acetylcholine and its ligands
Blindness, macular degeneration and other sight impairment
Caffeic acid
Chelation agents
Deafness and tinnitus
Dementia and Alzheimers
Ferulic acid
Linoleic acid
Malic acid
Manic depression
Multiple sclerosis
Parkinsons disease
Vitamin A
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2
Vitamin B3
Vitamin B5
Vitamin C
Vitamin E