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Reproductive system disease

Category: Illness or disabilities



Introduction and description


The science section has a description of the reproductive system itself on which this section depends.

In order to look at the diseases and illnesses of the reproductive system, it helps to describe the functions of the reproductive system and their dependencies.   If any one of these functions does not work or malfunctions,  that constitutes an illness.   We already have descriptions for a number of problems on the site, thus a link will show where the problem is described.


Approximately every 28 days, the pituitary gland releases the hormone FSH that stimulates an ova/follicle to develop and grow. Following a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH), an oocyte (immature egg cell) will be released into the uterine tube, where it will then be available to be fertilized by a male’s sperm. Ovulation marks the end of the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle and the start of the luteal phase. If the ova is fertilized by sperm, to become an ovum, it then attaches to the endometrium and the fetus develops.  If no fertilisation has occurred, the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, and unfertilized ova are shed each cycle through the process of menstruation.  Thus problems can occur as follows



The human reproductive system involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the male inserts his erect penis into the female's vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. Thus the main problems here may include:

Although men and women may regard premature ejaculation as a problem, it is not strictly speaking a reproductive system problem, unless of course the man ejaculates before he enters the vagina.

Vaginitis  can result in discharge, itching and pain, and is often associated with an irritation or infection of the vulva. It is usually due to infection.  The three main kinds of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis [thrush – a fungal infection], and trichomoniasis [caused by the single-celled protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis].  Infection can affect all the next stages causing malfunction.







Fertilisation of the egg


The sperm then travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus and fallopian tubes for fertilization of the egg

The problems here may relate to either Infertility - of the mother, or uterine diseases - for example:

  • Prolapse of the uterus,
  • Cancers, tumours or benign growths [including fibroids],
  • Ectopic growth of endometrial tissue within the myometrium,
  • Endometriosis [see below],
  • Infection by a pathogen,
  • Congenital malformation
  • Damage from instrumentation or infection - in effect scarring



Endometriosis is a gynaecological condition in which cells from the lining of the uterus appear and flourish outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, the peritoneum. The uterine cavity is lined with endometrial cells, which are under the influence of female hormones. Endometrial cells in areas outside the uterus are also influenced by hormonal changes and respond in a way that is similar to the cells found inside the uterus. Symptoms of endometriosis are pain and infertility. The pain often is worse with the menstrual cycle.   It has been estimated that endometriosis occurs in roughly 6–10% of women.

Gestation of the fetus - Pregnancy


Upon successful fertilization and implantation, gestation of the fetus then occurs within the female's uterus for approximately nine months, this process is known as pregnancy in humans.  Problems here may include:


Gestation ends with birth, the process of birth is known as labour. Labour consists of the muscles of the uterus contracting, the cervix dilating, and the baby passing out the vagina (the female genital organ).  Childbirth is very obviously neither an illness or a disease, but has a description on the site.  It is entirely controlled by hormones and is thus very dependent on the endocrine system.


Menopause is not an illness, but can make people feel very unwell.   It is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and she is no longer able to have children.  It occurs when there are no follicles left, or the endocrine system stops producing enough hormones to have any effect.


If we thus summarise the various things that can go wrong with the system, we are actually dealing with three main things:

  • Malfunction of or damage to the endocrine/hormone system – leading via a knock on effect to malfunction in the reproductive system 
  • Malformation, damage or infection of the various organs - Uterus, testes, penis, ovaries etc
  • Malformation, blockage, damage or infection  of the various passages in the reproductive system eg from the fallopian tube to the uterus, or the testes to the penis

One form of malfunction is when cells reproduce out of control, the illness we call cancer.  As such Cancer of the various reproductive organs including the prostate, uterus, testes  and so on is a malfunction.  Some maps are shown below which provide some statistics on two of these types of cancer.





Thus to find the cause of any of the symptomatic problems outlined above we need to find out what can cause these three.

Stress and extreme negative emotion

High levels of negative emotions do not directly cause reproductive system problems, but all forms of stress affect the immune system.  Stress compromises our immune responses and as a consequence the pathogens that may be in our bodies can proliferate and start to attack us.

Fungal infections

Men can get fungal infections too

Vaginal yeast infection, also known as candidal vulvovaginitis and vaginal thrush, is excessive growth of yeast in the vagina that results in vaginal itching, which may be severe. Other symptoms include burning with urination, white and thick vaginal discharge that typically does not smell bad, pain with sex, and redness around the vagina.  Vaginal yeast infections are generally due to excessive growth of Candida spp.For example in one study "The most common species was Candida albicans (85%), followed by Candida glabrata, and other Candida species including Candida dubliniensis [Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 28–31].

Vaginitis “ is not classified as a sexually transmitted infection; however, it may occur more often in those who are frequently sexually active”.  Additional risk factors include taking antibiotics and eating a diet high in simple sugars.

What may not be commonly recognised is that yeasts and fungi often harbour far more serious pathogens - the pathogens that do major damage. 

… yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population.  PMID:  24833856

Furthermore, the whole flora of the vagina may be symbiotically organised with pathogens mutually co-operating and 'friendly bacteria' cooperating to defend our bodies - a warzone!

An analysis of 17,391 cytologies from outpatients seen between January 1997 and August 1998……. showed that Gardnerella[bacteria]  vaginalis was the most frequent agent in women with HPV [virus]  infection (23.6% versus 17.4%; P <0.05), while in the control group the most frequent agent was Candida sp. (23.9% versus 13.8%; p <0.001)…… the data presented in this investigation show that there is an association between Gardnerella vaginalis and HPV infection. It remains to be established whether the microorganisms favour each other.  PMID:  10887386

thus the flora and balance in the vagina is absolutely key to the prevention of disease of the reproductive system.  It may be worth adding that candida yeasts are often found in stools - indicating they have colonised the intestines and/or rectum or are being expelled from the body via this route - this has a relevance when we look at prevention.


Annabel Croft, was  a British professional tennis player. After her doctor
found a cyst on her ovary in 2003, she has visited a homeopath and
found her cyst reduced in size after taking the prescribed remedies

Toxins appear to play a big part in the development of reproductive system diseases. Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that at certain doses, can interfere with the endocrine (or hormone system) in mammals. Hormones work at very small doses (part per billion ranges) thus it takes very little to disrupt the body's endocrine systems. Endocrine disruption can occur via higher than normal doses of the body's own hormones [via the food chain for example] or via chemicals that can compete with natural hormones for receptors or destroy the receptors. 


The seriousness of this problem is very poorly understood.  There are oestrogens from pharmaceuticals in our water supplies, and there are even endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water.

Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. ……  Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.  PMID:  19274472

There are other toxins also implicated.   For example

One of the known causes of Endometriosis is toxins.  Several studies have investigated the potential link between exposure to dioxins and endometriosis, in particular TCDD (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin – the most toxic dioxin). Monkeys that were fed dioxin in amounts as small as five parts per trillion developed endometriosis. In addition, the dioxin-exposed monkeys showed immune abnormalities similar to those observed in women with endometriosis. 

Bacterial infection


A number of diseases of the reproductive system are caused by bacteria.  These include:

  • Gonorrhea  - is an infection is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  • Syphilis -  is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
  • Chlamydia infection  - is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The term Chlamydia infection can also refer to infection caused by any species belonging to the bacterial family Chlamydiaceae. C. trachomatis is found only in humans.   Chlamydia is a major infectious cause of human genital and eye disease. Chlamydia infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide; it is estimated that about 1 million individuals in the United States are infected with chlamydia
  • Klebsiella infection -Klebsiella is a genus of bacteria found everywhere in nature. They can be found in water, soil, plants, insects, animals and humans

One hundred cases of ovarian cancer were studied at autopsy to determine the effect of morphologic and clinical factors on survival time, the primary cause of death, and tumor/treatment-related morbidity.  .... Escherichia coli and Klebsiella were the most common pathogens identified postmortem. Intestinal obstruction (51%) and ureteral obstruction (28%) were the most common forms of tumor-induced morbidity.

  • Escherichia coli - is a Gram-negative, bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine.  We will have more to say about this in the section on 'Prevention'
  • Bacterial vaginosis - A healthy vagina is colonized by a mutually symbiotic flora of micro-organisms that protect its host from disease-causing microbes.  Any imbalance is called BV or vaginitis:

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an imbalance of the vaginal bacterial microbiota and its aetiology is still unknown. …… Seven vaginal bacteria were highly accurate for BV diagnosis both in swabs and FVU.

  • Atopobium vaginae,
  • Prevotella spp.
  • Gardnerella vaginalis,
  • Bacterial vaginosis associated bacterium (BVAB) 2
  • Eggerthella-like bacterium,
  • Leptotrichia amnionii and
  • Megasphaera type 1

PMID:  24814599

Parasites and Mites


 The role of parasites, including mites,  in reproductive system disease is greatly underestimated.  The presence of cysts and even fibroids is often a sign that infestation has occurred, but been successfully fought off.  All of this battling with parasitic infection from drinking water or bathing water and from sexual intercourse with infected partners - parasites have been found in the testes and can thus be expelled with semen - is undertaken by our immune system and we are usually totally unaware it is taking place.

But we should be, because if our immune system is not up to the battle, the parasites can do untold damage

Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in the  female reproductive tract. Cells of the innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen.
Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, is a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection has also been reported.
Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated.  PMID: 25201404

This paper was written in September 2014. 


Anthea Turner is a British television presenter and has said the
pain of endometriosis had been unbearable at times.
"If someone was to give me a gun I would shoot myself, it
really can get that bad".  Anthea has undergone five unsuccessful
IVF treatments.

A very very large number of viruses are implicated in reproductive system diseases.  In the list that follows, which is by no means complete but intended to be indicative, either the name of the virus is given, or if more details have been added in other sections, a link to that section.

JC virus - as yet no links to cancers have been found as far as we are aware, but there are links to fibroids

Our study showed that JC virus infection is highly related to the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. PMID: 24923168

Herpes - is caused by the Herpes simplex virus [1 or 2] and is associated with a number of disorders of the reproductive system. On a superficial level it produces cold sores, and genital herpes - watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals.  But cancer can be caused by herpes plus other problems

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are among the infections most frequently encountered by humans. Two types of HSV infections have been identified-HSV-1, which usually causes orolabial disease, and HSV-2, which is associated more frequently with genital and newborn infections. Usually, HSV causes mild and self-limited disease of the mouth and lips or at genital sites. However, on occasion, the disease can be life-threatening. Such is the case with neonatal HSV infection and HSV infections of the central nervous system. Furthermore, in the immunocompromised host, severe infection has been encountered and is a source of morbidity. Even in the immunocompetent host, frequent recurrences, particularly those of the genital tract, can be debilitating. Because HSV does cause genital ulcerative disease, it is associated with an increased risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus infection.  PMID: 12118847

BK virus - Prostate cancer is associated with xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus and BK virus.

The overall prevalence of polyomaviruses was 19% in the prostate cancer cases. Sequencing analysis of the polyomavirus-positive specimens revealed the presence of BKV in all samples . Reconstitution of the BKV from the BKV-positive prostate samples was successfully achieved in cell culture and progeny viral particles were obtained, confirming the presence of the virus in the human biopsies.  PMID: 18161654

Lance Armstrong had testicular cancer

Testicular cancer has a host of viral causes.......

Testicular cancer - ...A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate a possible association between viral infections (EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, HPV, and HIV) and testicular cancer. .... For infection with EBV, CMV, Parvovirus B19, and HIV .... the results support a possible association PMID: 23959966


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. ... HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies.  PMID: 25964524


Hepatitis virus - An embryonal carcinoma of the testicle developed in a 29-year-old white man 3 months after recovery from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive hepatitis. ...The carcinoma cells contained hepatitis B surface antigen; controls, including sections from normal testicles and three other testicular tumors, were negative.  PMID: 2679487

Kylie Minogue had breast cancer

Breast cancer is associated with mouse mammary tumor virus, EBV, and HPV but EBV is known to produce cancer in general;

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) .... was the first virus to be directly associated with human cancer. EBV has two distinct life cycles in the human host; a lytic form of infection that produces new infectious virions, and a latent form of infection that allows the virus to persist in a dormant state for the lifetime of the host. EBV has evolved a life cycle that mimics the natural differentiation pathway of antigen-activated B cells, giving the virus access to its site of latent infection, the resting memory B cell. By steering infected cells through the various stages of lymphocyte differentiation, EBV is able to enter a cell type suitable for long-term latent persistence and periodic reactivation. However, its presence in various stages of B-cell development, and its ability to infect certain epithelial cells, can have pathogenic consequences, and can contribute to the development of a diverse group of lymphomas and carcinomas.  PMID: 17049016

Cytomegalovirus [CMV] is a known cause for a number of cancers and disorders including testicular cancer and cervical cancer.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) was isolated from cell cultures derived from 2 of 10 cervical cancer biopsies from patients in an advanced stage of the disease.  PMID: 208996

 There are more, but this is a good sample.


Anna Friel was diagnosed with endometriosis when she was 28,
after being rushed to hospital with a ruptured ovarian cyst

The name for a vaccine that has a live virus in it is an attenuated vaccine.   Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, rubella, and mumps, and the bacterial disease typhoid.  As we can see from the description above, many reproductive diseases can be caused by viruses and bacteria.  There appears to be a belief by those promoting vaccines that the immune system defeats the virus as it builds up an immunological record.  But there is now enough research to show that this is not the case.  A virulent strain of attenuated virus may replicate very fast before the immune system has had time to muster its defences - particularly if the virus is injected or administered by nasal spray. A virus is capable of then secreting itself in adipose tissue and the joints and 'laying low'.  Adipose tissue apears to provide a safe haven for a number of viruses.  There is also the problem of virus latency.

As such reproductive system disease may be caused by viruses, obtained from vaccines, emerging at times of stress, or high emotion and thus low immunological function.  For example, Simian virus is a known cause for a number of cancers

Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. ...SV40 can replicate in certain types of simian and human cells. ..... there are accumulating reports of detection of SV40 DNA and/or T-ag in a variety of human tumors.  PMID: 9923853


One of the known effects of too much heat near the testes is problems with the sperm.  The following relates to mice, because scientists are allowed to torture mice, but they are not allowed to torture many humans [sorry my little joke].

Evidence exists to suggest detrimental effects of heat stress on male fertility. This study was designed to assess the effects of scrotal heat stress on mature and developing sperm in a mouse model. ….. Our results indicate that …. Spermatocytes present within the testis at the time of heat stress resulted into a lower concentration of spermatozoa with reduced viability and low motility. … DNA integrity of spermatozoa resulting from spermatocytes was also compromised by heat stress, the higher degree of DNA damage was found among spermatozoa resulting from spermatids present within the testis at the time of heat stress. At last, heat shock effect on spermatozoa present in the epididymis at the time of thermal stress resulted into a sex ratio distortion. PMID:  17474098

What is not commonly acknowledged however, is the effect all sorts of radiation can have on the reproductive system.

Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression.  CONCLUSION:  Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.  PMID:  25918601

Of course men laugh at such wild assertions, but there are links to
infertility too, laugh on my fine friend

All radiation whether 'cosmic' or electromagnetic impacts our bodies and depending on its frequency, it resonates different parts of us. 

The reason that nuclear radiation is so dangerous is that it impacts cells, but what we appear to have overlooked is that all radiation impacts some part of us. 

Every aggregate in our bodies - organs, cells, the body itself, has natural ‘resonance’.  Resonance is a substance’s natural tendency to oscillate – vibrate – at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies, known as the thing’s resonant frequency.  And some radiation affects the reproductive system organs.  High intensity radiation affects the reproductive system organs in the short term, but even low exposure radiation of the 'right' frequency can have an effect in the long term. This is a much larger problem than people realise .....

To evaluate the effects of laptop computers connected to local area networks wirelessly (Wi-Fi) on human spermatozoa…… Donor sperm samples, mostly normozoospermic, exposed ex vivo during 4 hours to a wireless internet-connected laptop showed a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility and an increase in sperm DNA fragmentation. Levels of dead sperm showed no significant differences between the two groups…… We speculate that keeping a laptop connected wirelessly to the internet on the lap near the testes may result in decreased male fertility. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to prove this contention.  PMID:  22112647

Heavy metal and dental fillings

 Much of the damage done by heavy metals is to the brain - they cause brain damage, however, there are also links to reproductive system diseases, this abstract has been shortened to its essentials in this context.

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic.. ….Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world  ……Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. … Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. …. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and tuna; fish (such as pike, walleye and bass) taken from polluted fresh waters should especially be avoided. ……. The general population is exposed to lead from air and food in roughly equal proportions. …. recent data indicating that there may be neurotoxic effects of lead at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. …. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. PMID:  14757716

Nutritional deprivation

All sorts of nutritional deprivation may result in reproductive system disease.  Mineral imbalance - both lack of the correct mineral and overdosing on minerals, vitamin imbalance - and here both deficiency and overdose via supplements can cause problems, as well as a lack of essential proteins and fats can all have an effect.  For example:

both low (<50 nmol/L) and high (>125 nmol/L) concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. PMID:  26035242

and here is another example of what overdosing by using vitamin supplements can do to you, the figures are from eHealthme:

On Jun, 17, 2015: 38,376 people reported to have side effects when taking Vitamins. Among them, 18 people (0.05%) have Vaginitis.

Trend of Vaginitis in Vitamins reports

 and if we take the example of the mineral supplement zinc sulphate and use the tables in eHealthme we find that there is an association between taking this mineral supplement and the following problems.  

Vagina Dryness

Vaginal Abscess

Vaginal Bleeding Between Periods

Vaginal Bleeding In Pregnancy

Vaginal Cancer (Vaginal tumors)

Vaginal Cancer Metastatic

Vaginal Cancer Stage 0

Vaginal Candidiasis (Vaginal yeast infection)

Vaginal Cyst

Vaginal Cysts

Vaginal Discharge

Vaginal Erythema

Vaginal Haemorrhage

Vaginal Infection

Vaginal Irritation

Vaginal Obstruction

Vaginal Pain

Vaginal Prolapse

Vaginal Tumors

Vaginal Yeast Infection


Vaginitis Gardnerella

 Thus the problem is deficiency or overdose - imbalance. 

Surgery and physical damage


 Although surgery can very directly damage the various organs of the reproductive system, causing them to malfunction, one very often overlooked problem is the damage done to the lymph system by all sorts of surgery - including plastic surgery.

Physical damage can very easily affect the lymph system causing it to block or malfunction.  Any problems with this system can cause reproductive system problems simply because the lymph system is the mechanism by which the immune system works.   A badly performed hysterectomy, for example, can cause untold problems and has. Since reproductive system disease can be caused by pathogens and our only defence against pathogens is our immune system, damage to the lymph system is likely to lead to disease, and one of those diseases is reproductive system disease.


To Do Or Not To Do (about the hysterectomy) Dr Muhammad El Hennawy Ob/gyn specialist

One Of The Most Commonly Performed Operations In The World Hysterectomy has long been regarded as an operation performed by hyster-happy," mostly male, surgeons In the United States, Hysterectomy is the second most common major operation performed in the United States today, second only to cesarean section 600 000 hysterectomies are performed each year or one hysterectomy every minute. By the age of 60, one out of every three women in the U.S. has had a hysterectomy In the United Kingdom, women have a one in five chance of having a hysterectomy by the age of 55 Nine of every 10 hysterectomies are performed for non-cancerous conditions. In many of these, no disease is present and the term dysfunctional uterine bleeding is used to describe these cases. When there is disease it is commonly limited to the uterus and, in most parts of the world, is more likely than not to be a leiomyoma.


 All cells need oxygen to function, thus hypoxia - a shortage of oxygen caused by pollution, for example, or smoking, - reduces the oxygen getting to cells and they can die or simply malfunction.


An extremely large number of pharmaceuticals can cause reproductive system problems - thousands not hundreds.  The following link is not complete, but representative.  The eHealthme website from which this was derived is searchable by symptom, thus this can be used to get specific information:

  • Menopause - this LINK and an alternative LINK, shows you the pharmaceuticals implicated in problems during the menopause
  • Testicular diseases - these LINKs shows you the pharmaceuticals implicated in diseases of the testes
    • Undescended testes - LINK
    • Abnormal biopsy - LINK
  • Vaginal diseases - these LINKs shows you the pharmaceuticals implicated in
    • Vaginitis -  LINK .
    • Vaginal bleeding- LINK .
    • Vaginal disorder- LINK
  • Ovary diseases - these LINKs shows you the pharmaceuticals implicated in
    • Polycystic ovaries - LINK
    • Ovarian cysts - LINK
    • Ovarian disorders - LINK
    • Ovarian failure - LINK
  • Prostate problems - this LINK shows pharmaceuticals implicated in prostrate disorders - excluding cancer some more links include
    • Prostate tenderness - LINK
    • Prostate neoplasms - LINK
    • 'Abnormal' prostate biopsy - LINK
  • Uterine diseases - these LINKs shows you the pharmaceuticals implicated in
  • Cancer - of the various reproductive organs including
    • Prostate - LINK
    • Uterus - see above
    • Testes - see LINK
    • Breast - LINK
    • Ovaries - LINK
    • Penis - LINK
    • and so on. 

Treatment and prevention

Treatment - The first step in all treatment is to find the cause.  Once the cause has been identified, then both treatment and prevention can be based on the result.

Prevention- Pathogens may enter the system via the orifices of the body – principally the mouth, nose, and the vagina in women.  It thus makes a great deal of sense not to use unsafe and unwise sexual practises.  So let us take a look at how the pathogens mentionned above - sometimes very strange ones like the bacteria in the intestines - could cause disease in the reproductive system

Prevention - No more anal sex

also called Buggery

According to Wikipedia “Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.”  Whose pleasure is not specified, but as this was undoubtedly written by a man, then it must be his pleasure, because anal sex provides no pleasure for women.  Generally it hurts.  Technically it is called Sodomy - as in Sodomy and Begora [a joke].

The anus and rectum are our sewer outlet.  They provide the means by which pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites and toxins can be expelled.  They may not be dead or have been made harmless, the lubrication and form of the intestines and rectum [which has a very high number of white blood cells to protect it]  help to protect the body from attack.

If a man thrusts his penis into anyone’s anus, he thus risks covering his penis with more pathogens than most people care to think of.  We, from the time we have been small children, have been told we must wash our hands after going to the toilet.  There is a reason.

So now the man has his penis covered with pathogens, we shall assume he is with a woman.  For ‘sexual pleasure’, he now thrusts the same penis into her vagina, thereby transferring all these pathogens into her.  She now has all the parasites, viruses, fungi, toxins, bacteria in her vagina.  These may be hers or they may be the left overs from one or more previous partners he has carefully not deemed to mention in case any of them refuse to give him his ‘sexual pleasure’.

And thereby is infection spread.  And the way to stop the spread is to stop the anal sex

Prevention -  Protect the vaginal microflora

The vagina of women is protected in two ways controlled mostly by very special bacteria:

The role of Lactobacillus species in the female urogenital tract as a barrier to infection is of considerable interest. These organisms are believed to contribute to the control of vaginal microbiota by competing with other microorganisms for adherence to epithelial cells and by producing antimicrobial compounds. These bactericidal compounds include organic acid, which lowers the vaginal pH, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocin-like substances and possibly biosurfactants.  PMID:  10865199

The healthy vagina of a woman of child-bearing age is acidic, with a pH normally ranging between 3.8 and 4.5., and this is due to the degradation of glycogen to the lactic acid by enzymes secreted by the Döderlein's bacillus, which is a normal commensal of the vagina. The acidity retards the growth of many strains of pathogenic microbes.

These are our only protection against disease.

A healthy vagina is colonized by a mutually symbiotic flora of microorganisms that protect its host from disease-causing microbes, any attempt to upset this balance may cause many undesirable outcomes.  Once the vaginal protection has been compromised every pathogen going – from whatever source – can go anywhere in the reproductive system – and the body.  And they do, causing all sorts of reproductive system disease, for example

BV is strongly implicated in female infertility and is probably an underestimated cause of unexplained infertility. PMID:  23199811

This is still a highly under researched area and thus it is essential that we do not in any way upset this delicate floral garden of bacteria.  The main practises which should be stopped include:

  •  Douching - which simply washes away everything - good and bad
  • Using anti-bacterial agents and swabs in the vagina - note that hospitals are the culprits often here.  There is every reason to ensure whatever is inserted into the vagina is pathogen free - sterilised, but covering it with anti-bacterial substances is not a good idea
  • Using certain Spermicidal creams - which contain anti-bacterial agents 

There is also concern about hot tubs, jacuzzis and swimming pools that occasionally have high doses of antibacterial chemicals in them - just take care here.

Prevention - eating for health


 As we have seen, the vagina, as well as the mouth, nose, ears and other  orifices of the body, along with the intestines are protected by a very complex micture of bacteria and fungi.  In some cases the protection is provided by small parasites as well.  Thus we have good microbes and bad microbes, alies and enemies.  Whether these good microbes work or not is dependent on what we feed them.  Most of our good microbes thrive on a balanced diet of organic natural food.  They do not thrive on supplements or overdoses of food.  Thus if we overdose on sugars and carbohydrates, everything goes haywire.  Too much sugar and we may get thrush.

In order to prevent disease, therefore we must go back to Eating for health.

Prevention - Justice and the law

There is little point in legislating against acts such as sodomy or buggery, as in the first place the laws are virtually unenforcable and in the second place laws in this area are virtually an invitation, for those who find the legal system to be unjust, to break the law.

But there is every reason to try to enforce laws that are aimed at preventing hurt.  If, for example, a person has sex with another person knowing they have a sexually transmittable disease, they are in many ways committing grievous bodily harm.  If the person subsequently dies from that disease, it is in effect murder.

Prevention - getting tested

There is an argument for having every person tested for pathogens of all sorts on a regular basis, whether these cause reproductive system disease or other sorts of disease.

Additional information

See Cunnilingus and Fellatio.

References and further reading

  • Testicular swelling due to lymphatic filariasis after brief travel to Haiti. - Marcos LA, Shapley NP, Eberhard M, Epstein JI, Fox LM, Magill A, Nutman TB. 2014 May 27.  PMID:  24865674
  •  [Testicular bilharzioma by Schistosomia haematobium: about two cases]. - Ze Ondo C, Sarr A, Sow Y, Thiam I, Fall B, Sow D, Thiam A, Diao B, Fall PA, Gaye GW, Ndoye AK, Ba M, Diagne BA.  2013 May 29. Review. French. PMID: 24365632
  • Lymphatic filariasis and associated morbidities in rural communities of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Christiana O, Olajumoke M, Oyetunde S.  Epub 2013 Mar 19. PMID: 23518235
  • Primary infertility associated with schitosoma mansoni: a case report from the Jos plateau, north central Nigeria.  Adisa J, Egbujo EM, Yahaya BA, Echejoh G.  Afr Health Sci. 2012 Dec;12(4):563-5. PMID:  23515635
  • Testicular mass: do not forget filariasis.  Ho CC, Ideris N.  Infection. 2013 Aug  PMID:  23471824
  • Tissue and stage-specific distribution of Wolbachia in Brugia malayi.  Fischer K, Beatty WL, Jiang D, Weil GJ, Fischer PU.  PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 May PMID:  21629728
  • Testicular schistosomiasis: a case study.  Hassan A, El-Mogy S, Zalata K, Mostafa T.  Fertil Steril. 2011 May  PMID:  21236422
  • Filariasis: an emergent cause of acute scrotal pain.  Di Tonno F, Mazzariol C, Piazza N, Murer B.  Urologia. 2010 Apr-May;77(2):147-9. Review.  PMID: 2089087
  • Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine and Primary Ovarian Failure: Another Facet of the Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 2013, Selena Colafrancesco, Carlo Perricone, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yehuda Shoenfeld

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