Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)


This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)

Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) -- Heal-All, Self-Heal



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) -- Heal-All, Self-Heal


ARSENIC Flower 0.37 ppm; CAL

Anorexic FHN ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

BETULINIC-ACID Root 738 ppm; JAD Shoot 2.88 ppm; JAD

Anthelmintic X11315752 ; Antibacterial X10630117 ; Anticancer JBH ; Anticarcinomic JBH ; Antiedemic X7701004 ; AntiHIV 14.8 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antileukemic X9353895 ; Antimalarial IC50=19-26 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimelanomic NYT3/28/95 ; Antinociceptive; Antiplasmodial PR13:115 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral 14.8 uM; Apoptotic; Cytotoxic 16.4 uM JNP66:263 50-100 ppm BPCC ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor X11684183 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 200 ug/ml PC48:495 IC50=101 uM YHH30:621

CALCIUM Flower 14,500 ppm; CAL

Antiallergic 500 mg/day; Antianxiety DAS ; Antiarrhythmic 500-1,500 mg RAF ; Antiarthritic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antiatherosclerotic 500 mg/day WER ; Anticlimacteric 1,000-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidote (Aluminum) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antimenopausal; Antiobesity PIL ; Antiosteoporotic 500-2,000 mg/day; Antiperiodontitic 750 mg/day WER ; AntiPMS 1 g/day; Antirheumatic 1,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Antitic DAS ; Anxiolytic; Calcium-Channel-Blocker NP6:1 ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 500 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 1 g/day WER ; Laxative 1,000-1,200 mg WAF ; Tranquilizer 500-1,500 mg/day WAF ; Vasodilator NP6:1


No activity reported.

COPPER Flower 8 ppm; CAL

Antianemic HYL ; Antiarthritic; Antidiabetic 2-4 mg/day WER ; Antifatigue HYL ; Antiinflammatory WER ; Antinociceptive WER ; Antiosteoporotic MPP ; Cardioprotective HYL ; Contraceptive MAR ; Hypocholesterolemic DAS ; Immunomodulator; Schizophrenigenic DAS


Allelochemic IC90=1 mM 438 ; Antioxidant 4.4 x Vit. E ID50=3.5-22 uM JAF50:166 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Allelochemic IC81=1 mM 438 ; Allergenic M&R581 ; Antioxidant ID50=0.7-2.4 uM; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Metal-Chelator (Copper) JAC45:3362 ; NO-Inhibitor IC78=250 uM JAF50:850 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Pigment JBH ; Prooxidant JAC45:3362

EO Plant 5,000 ppm; HHB

No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Analgesic PR14:401 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer PM69:1125 ; Anticapillary-Fragility TOX ; Antidermatitic DUKE1992B ; Antielastase IC50=0.15 ug/ml X11417917 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiinflammatory 1/4 indomethacin PM57:A131 ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=4.6 uM; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral; Antiwrinkle; Calcium-Antagonist X8036895 ; cAMP-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 100 uM HH2 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive ivn dog; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tissue-Thromboplastin-Inhibitor IC50=20.8 uM X12510836 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PM69:1125

IRON Flower 640 ppm; CAL

Antiakathisic M29 ; Antianemic M29 ; Anticanker; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antimenorrhagic 100 mg/day/wmn/orl PAM ; Prooxidant PIL

MAGNESIUM Flower 4,560 ppm; CAL

Antiaggregant 400 mg/day; Antialcoholic PIL ; Antianginal WER ; Antianorectic DAS ; Antianxiety WER ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiarthritic DAS ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Antiatherosclerotic; Anticephalagic PIL ; AntiCFS PIL ; Anticlimacteric 500-750 mg/day; Anticonvulsant FAC ; Anticoronary 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antidiabetic 400-800 mg/man/day; Antidysmenorrheic 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiendometriotic 500 mg/day WAF ; Antienterotic KEN ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day; Antifatigue KEN ; Antifibromyalgic 200-300 mg 3x/day; Antigastrotic KEN ; Antiglaucomic ABEL1999 ; Antihyperkinetic DAS ; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antihypoglycemic DAS ; Antiinflammatory 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilithic PAM ; AntiLyme 400-1,000 mg; Antimastalgic PAM ; Antimenopausal 500-750 mg/day; Antimigraine 200 mg/day/man WER ; Antimitral-valve-prolapse PIL ; AntiMS; Antinephrolytic; Antineurotic DAS ; Antiosteoporotic 500-1,000 mg/day/wmn/orl; Antiplaque 500-1,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiPMS 400-800 mg/day/wmn orl 400-800 mg/day/wmn/orl; AntiRaynaud's 280-350 mg/day WAF ; Antiretinopathic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antispasmodic PIL ; Antispasmophilic 500 mg/day WER ; Antistress 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Antistroke 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Antisyndrome-X 400 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Anxiolytic 500-750 mg/day; Calcium-Antagonist; Cardioprotective PIL ; CNS-Depressant FAC ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypocholesterolemic 400 mg/day WER ; Hypotensive 260-500 mg/day; Immunomodulator KEN ; Insulinogenic 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Laxative 300-500 mg/day; Litholytic PIL ; Myorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Neurotransmitter; Tranquilizer 500-750 mg/day WAF ; Uterorelaxant 100 mg 4 x/day WER ; Vasodilator

MANGANESE Flower 96 ppm; CAL

Antialcoholic FHN ; Antianemic MAR ; Antiarthritic PIL ; Antidiabetic 10-30 mg/man/day 3-5 mg/day WER ; Antidiscotic DAS ; Antidyskinetic MAR ; Antiepileptic 450 mg/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiototic DAS ; Antioxidant PIL ; AntiPMS PIL ; Antisyndrome-X 10-30 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Hypoglycemic

MERCURY Flower 0.06 ppm; CAL

Nephrotoxic PAM


Abortifacient DUKE1992B ; Antiallergic LAF351 ; Antiarrhythmic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antiatherosclerotic LAF351 ; Antibacterial MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticomplement IC40-50 0.01 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antiedemic IC36=40 mg/kg ipr rat DFN:159 ; Antifertility PMP24:113 ; Antigingivitic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; AntiHIV EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 40 mg/kg ipr JNP54:455 ; Antiischemic 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene IC50=17 uM X11085357 ; Antimalarial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antinephritic IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antioxidant IC46=10 uM JMF5:1 BCI28:735 ; Antiperiodontic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiperoxidant IC30=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; AntiPGE2 IC50=24 uM X11085357 ; Antiplaque MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=70-89 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antisarcomic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic MIC=625-1,250 ug/ml JNP59:987 ; AntiTGF-beta IC50=19-24 uM X12898427 ; Antitumor LAF351 ; Antitumor (Breast) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Kidney) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Lung) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Pancreas) AJC31:37 ; Antiulcer >carbenoxolone PJB1(1):181 ; Antiviral EC50=1.7 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=21.8 ug/ml JNP61:1090 ; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective 40 mg/kg X15070161 ; Cardiotonic; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=295 uM/ JNP61:1212 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Diuretic LAF ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:211 ; Hypolipemic LAF351 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator LAF351 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X14966369 ; Phagocytotic LAF351 ; Piscicide WOI ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor igs mus; Sedative LAF351 ; Uterotonic; Vasopressor X15070161


No activity reported.

POTASSIUM Flower 11,900 ppm; CAL

Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; Antiarrhythmic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antifatigue DAS ; Antihypertensive; Antispasmodic DAS ; Antistroke; Anxiolytic WAF ; Beta-Blocker NP6:1 ; Cardioprotective 3,000-5,000 mg PIL ; Cardiotoxic 18,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Diuretic NP6:1 ; Hypotensive; Vasodilator NP6:1


No activity reported.

ROSMARINIC-ACID Flower 2,600 - 19,300 ppm YAK106:1108 Leaf 17,400 ppm; YAK106:1108 Plant 17,400 - 61,000 ppm FT62:166

ABeta-Inhibitor X16495207 ; Adenylate-Cyclase-Inhibitor CPB37:1287 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor X16249088 ; Antiaggregant LAF ; Antiallergic BPB24:1206 ; Antialzheimeran X16524383 ; Antianaphylactic 1-100 mg/kg orl IJI10:729 ID50=1 mg/kg ivn rat DUKE1992B ID50=10 mg/kg ims rat DUKE1992B ; Antiatherosclerotic IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antibacterial PM55:663 ; Anticoagulant LAF ; Anticomplementary 1/2 aspirin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antidepressant X11917505 ; Antiedemic 0.316-3.16 mg/kg ims IJI10:729 ; Antigonadotropic; Antihemolytic IC70=5-10 um/l IJI10:729 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml V&D EC50=20 ug/ml POP:270 ; AntiHIV EC50=40 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihyperthyroid X6724503 ; Antiinflammatory IC~58=1,000 uM; Antiintegrase 10 ug/ml; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antilipoperoxidant PM56:173 ; Antimutagenic X16536576 ; Antinephritic JNP59:843 ; Antioxidant 10 uM PHM7:7 EC50=2.7 ug/ml FT62:170 ; Antioxidant (LDL) IC50=0.74 uM JAF45:578 ; Antiplaque X16524383 ; Antiproliferant X11270716 ; Antiprostaglandin 20 mg/kg ivn CAN ; Antiproteolytic IC50=0.9 mol l HH2 ; Antipulmonotic VET94 ; Antiradicular PM56:173 ; Antishock IJI10:735 ; Antithyreotropic DUKE1992B ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antiuremic JNP59:843 ; Antiviral EC50=40 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X11917505 ; Apoptotic X16534555 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC>58=1,000 uM PHM7:7 ; Cytotoxic TC50=100-150 ug/ml POP:270 ; Deiodinase-Inhibitor JNM1:10 ; Immunomodulator JAF50:5878 ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JAF46:4545 ; Neuroprotective X16495207 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Radioprotective X16536576


5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B

SODIUM Flower 155 ppm; CAL

Hypertensive DAS


Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


No activity reported.


Analgesic FT63(3):195 ; Antialzheimeran JNP61:1212 ; Antiarrhythmic X15070161 ; Antiarthritic PM57:A56 ; Antibacterial PR14:561 ; Anticancer JNP61:1212 ; Anticancer (Colon) JNP61:1212 ; Anticarcinomic AJC31:37 ; Anticariogenic LAF ; Anticholestatic 28-100 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; Anticomplement IC100 0.1 mM/l gpg HH2 IC80-90 0.05 mM/l gpg HH2 ; Antidiabetic CCO ; AntiEBV CAN ; Antiedemic; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antifibrosarcomic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antihepatotoxic 5-20 mg/kg ipr PR6:74 ; Antihistaminic CPB39:3276 ; AntiHIV 6.7 uM JNP66:263 EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Antihyperlipidemic JE49:57 ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 indomethacin IC24=500 mg/kg; Antileishmanic ED50=20 uM POP:113 ; Antileukemic IC50=2.5-17.8 ug/ml; Antilymphomic CAN ; Antimalarial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimetastatic IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Antimutagenic IC57-80=80 mg/kg; Antinephritic IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antiobesity? IJO16:4 ; Antioxidant IC50=10 uM; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiplasmodial IC50=28-37 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antiproliferative IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antistaphylococcic; AntiTGF-beta IC50=6-7.5 uM X12898427 ; Antithromboxane IC50=50 uM X11085357 ; Antitrypanosomic X12802734 ; Antitumor CR54:701 ; Antitumor (brain) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Breast) 0.5% diet CLE104:43 IC50=15-20 uM FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor (Cervix) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Lung); Antitumor (Ovary) AJC31:37 ; Antitumor (Stomach) FT66(4):369 ; Antitumor-Promoter PM57:A56 ; Antiulcer PR6:74 ; Antiviral IC85=18 ug/ml; Aromatase-Inhibitor FIT68:387 ; Beta-Blocker X15070161 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor ~100 mg/kg BO2 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide PR14:561 ; Cardioprotective X15070161 ; Cardiotonic X15070161 ; Choleretic 5-20 mg/kg orl PR6:74 ; CNS-Depressant DUKE1992B ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC50=130 uM/; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP61:1212 ; Cytotoxic 50 ppm JNP53(3):513 7.2 uM JNP66:263 ED50=3.75 ug/ml JNP53(3):513 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Elastase-Inhibitor IC50=~15 uM BO2 ; Hepatoprotective 1-100 ug/ml 10 mg/kg; Hypoglycemic JE27:243 ; Hypotensive X15070161 ; Immunomodulator X13678231 ; Leucocytogenic X13678231 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC50=0.18 mM FT66(4):369 ; MMP-9-Inhibitor IC80=10 uM BO2 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor BO2 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Piscicide DUKE1992B ; Potassium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; Protease-Inhibitor IC85=18 ug/ml JNP59:643 ; Protisticide CE7:285 ; Quinone-Reductase-Inducer 5 ug/ml AR19:35 ; Sodium-Sparing 3 mg/rat IWU ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor JNP64:1545 ; Trypanocide X12802734 ; Vasopressor X15070161

ZINC Flower 25 ppm; CAL

ACE-Inhibitor NP6:1 ; Analgesic TEI ; Antiacne 135 mg/day; Antiacrodermatitic 8-34 mg/day/orl/chd M29 ; Antialcoholic; Antialopecic DAS ; Antialzheimeran 50 mg/day WER ; Antiangiogenic X16606632 ; Antianorexic M29 ; Antiarthritic 50 mg/3x/day/orl/man; AntiBPH 25-60 mg/day; Anticanker 100 mg/day WER ; Anticataract 30 mg/day WER ; Anticoeliac MAR ; Anticold 50 mg DAS ; Anticolitic DAS ; Anticoronary 30 mg/day SYN-X ; AntiCrohn's DAS ; Antidandruff DAS ; Antidementia PIL ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Cadmium) LL-MAY89 ; Antidysgeuzic WRI ; Antieczemic 150 mg/day WER ; Antiencephalopathic M29 ; Antiepileptic 100 mg/day WER ; Antifibrotic 30 mg WAF ; Antifuruncular 45 mg/3x/day/man MAR ; Antihangover 15 mg WAF ; Antiherpetic? 25-60 mg/day; AntiHIV PMM ; Antiimpotence M29 ; Antiinfective 50 mg/day WER ; Antiinfertility 60 mg/day WER ; Antiinsomniac DAS ; Antilepric M29 ; Antileukonychic MTM ; Antilymphomic X16762953 ; Antimaculitic PIL ; Antimetastatic X16606632 ; Antineuropathic TEI ; Antinyctalopic WRI ; Antiobesity 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiosteoporotic; Antiperiodontitic MPP ; Antiplaque M29 ; Antiprolactin PAM ; Antiprostatitic 50 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Antirheumatic DAS ; Antiseptic 50 mg/day WER ; Antispare-Tire 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antistomatitic 50 mg/man/3x/day MAR ; Antisyndrome-X 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antitinnitic 60-120 mg/day WER ; Antitriglyceride 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiulcer 50 mg/3x/day/man MAR 88 mg/rat/day/15 days PIL ; Antiviral? M29 ; Astringent MAR ; Collagenic PIL ; Copper-Antagonist SYN-X ; Deodorant M29 ; Detoxicant (Alcohol) PIL ; Ergogenic PIL ; Hypotensive 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant DAS ; Immunosuppressant 300 mg/day/6 wks/orl/man M29 ; Insulinogenic 30 mg/day SYN-X ; Leptingenic 30-60 mg/man/day SYN-X ; Mucogenic JPP42:657 ; NF-kB-Inhibitor X16606632 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Spermigenic 60 mg/day WER ; Testosteronigenic WER ; Trichomonicide M29 ; Vulnerary MAR

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Aluminium poisoning
Antihelminthic agent
Asthma and allergy
Bacterial infection
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Blood circulatory system disease
Blood thinners
Cadmium poisoning
Common cold
Cough medicine
Erectile dysfunction
Extreme pain
Eye disease
Eye disease treatments - glaucoma
Fungal infection
Heart arrythmia
Hepatitis virus infection
Herpes simplex
Intestine disease
Kidney disease
Lead poisoning
Lung disease
Lymes disease
Mercury poisoning
Mouth and tooth disease
Nervous system disease
Pancreas disease
Reproductive system disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Skin diseases
Sleep deprivation, insomnia and mental exhaustion
Staphylococcal infection
Thyroid disease
Viral infection


Chelation agents
Dementia and Alzheimers
Multiple sclerosis



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

ABEL1999: Jim Duke's personal files

ACM:211: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 211.

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

AR19:35: Lee, S. K., Song, Y., Mata-Greenwood, E., Kelloff, G. J., Steele, V. E., Pezzuto, J. M. 1999. Modulation of in vitro Biomarkers of the Carcinogenic Process by Chemopreventive Agents. Anticancer Res., 19: 35-44.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

BCI28:735: Balanehru, S. and Nagarajan, B. 1992. Intervention of Adriamycin Induced Free Radical Damage. Biochemistry International 28(4): 735-744, 1992.

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPB24:1206: Jim Duke's personal files

BPCC: Biosyn. Prod. Cancer Chemotherapy (Petit et al)

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

CAL: Chen, H.C. and Lin, S.M. 1988. Determination of Mineral Elements in Certain Crude Drugs (Part 1), Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 4: 259-272.

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CCO: Chemical Constituents of Oriental Herbs (3 diff. books)

CE7:285: Chemical Express, 7: 285, 1992.

CLE104:43: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB37:1287: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB39:3276: Tsuruga, T., Chun, Y.-T., Ebizuka, Y., and Sankawa, U. 1991. Biologically Active Constituents of Melaleuca leucadendron: Inhibitors of Induced Histamine Release from Rat Mast Cells. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 39(12): 3276-3278, 1991.

CR54:701: Cancer Research, 54: 701, 1994.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DFN:159: Jim Duke's personal files

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

FAC: Facciola, S. 1998. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications, Vista CA. 713 pp.

FHN: Forest H. Nielsen, USDA, Grand Forks, various publications.

FIT68:387: Jim Duke's personal files

FT62:166: Fitoterapia No.62: 166.

FT62:170: Parveen, N. 1991. Antifilarial Activity of Vitex negundo Against Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia, 62(2): 163, 1991.

FT63(3):195: Jim Duke's personal files

FT66(4):369: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HHB: List, P.H. and Horhammer, L., Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Vols. 2-6, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969-1979.

HYL: Jim Duke's personal files

IJI10:729: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 729, 1988.

IJI10:735: Int. J. Immunopharmacology. Vol 10: 735, 1988.

IJO16:4: Internat. J. Oriental Med. 16: 4.

IWU: Iwu, M.M. 1993. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 435 pp.

JAC45:3362: Jim Duke's personal files

JAD: Duke, J. A. Writeups or information summaries on approximately 2,000 economic plants, USDA, ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705.

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:578: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF46:4545: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:166: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5878: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE27:243: Ivorra, M.D., Paya, M., and Villar, A. 1989. A Review of Natural Products and Plants as Potential Antidiabetic Drugs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 27: 243-275, 1989.

JE49:57: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP53(3):513: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP54:455: Aquino, R., De Feo, V., De Simone, F., Pizza, C.*, and Cirino, G. Plant Metabolites. New Compounds And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Uncaria tomentosa. Journal of Natural Products, 54(2): 453-459, 1991.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:643: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:843: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:987: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP61:1212: Ringbom, T., Seguar, L., Noreen, Y., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Ursolic Acid from Plantago major, a Selective Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalyzed Prostaglandin Biosynthesis. J. Nat. Prod., 61(10): 1212-1215.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JPP42:657: Li, K.M. Effect of zinc sulphate on acetic acid-induced gastric ulceration in rats. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 42: 657-659, 1990.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

LAF351: Jim Duke's personal files

LL-MAY89: Let's Live, May 1989.

M&R581: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

MTM: Jim Duke's personal files

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NYT3/28/95: New York Times, 3/28/95.

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC48:495: Dunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PHM7:7: Jim Duke's personal files

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):181: Jim Duke's personal files

PM55:663: Planta Medica, 55: 663.

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A131: Planta Medica, 57: A131, 1991.

PM57:A133: Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A56: Planta Medica, 57: A56, 1991.

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PMM: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP24:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:113: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR6:74: Shukla, B., Visen, P.K.S., Patnaik, G.K., Tripathi, S.C., Srimal, R.C., Dayal, R., and Dobhal, P.C. Hepatoprotective Activity in the Rat of Ursolic Acid Isolated from Eucalyptus Hybrid. Phytotherapy Research 6: 74-79, 1992.

RAF: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TEI: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

VET94: Tyler, V.E.. 1994.

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WOI: ANON. 1948-1976. The Wealth of India raw materials. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi. 11 volumes.

WRI: Jim Duke's personal files

X10630117: Jim Duke's personal files

X11085357: Jim Duke's personal files

X11270716: Jim Duke's personal files

X11315752: Jim Duke's personal files

X11417917: Jim Duke's personal files

X11684183: Jim Duke's personal files

X11917505: Jim Duke's personal files

X12010246: Jim Duke's personal files

X12065212: Jim Duke's personal files

X12510836: Jim Duke's personal files

X12584792: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802734: Jim Duke's personal files

X12898427: Jim Duke's personal files

X13677356: Jim Duke's personal files

X13678231: Jim Duke's personal files

X14966369: Jim Duke's personal files

X15070161: Jim Duke's personal files

X1559614: Jim Duke's personal files

X16104801: Jim Duke's personal files

X16249088: Jim Duke's personal files

X16394541: Jim Duke's personal files

X16495207: Jim Duke's personal files

X16524383: Jim Duke's personal files

X16534555: Jim Duke's personal files

X16536576: Jim Duke's personal files

X16606632: Jim Duke's personal files

X16762953: Jim Duke's personal files

X3101704: Jim Duke's personal files

X6724503: Jim Duke's personal files

X7701004: Jim Duke's personal files

X8036895: Jim Duke's personal files

X9353895: Jim Duke's personal files

YAK106:1108: Yakugaku Zasshi, 106: 1108.

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.