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Hepatitis virus infection

Category: Illness or disabilities



Introduction and description


There are five unrelated hepatotropic viruses [having an especial attraction or affinity for, or an effect on, the liver]  - hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E - that cause illness in human beings.    

  • Hepatitis A virus is a species of virus in the order Picornavirales in the family Picornaviridae and is the type species of the genus Hepatovirus.   The host range for hepatitis A virus (HAV) is limited to man and several species of non-human primates – principally chimpanzees and monkeys, “involvement of vertebrates other than primates in HAV circulation is unlikely”.  [PMID:  1335654]
  • Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV,- is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and the genus is classified as part of the Hepadnaviridae family. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey).  The human variant is capable of being carried by gorillas and chimpanzees.  Hepatitis B is one of a few known non-retroviral viruses which use reverse transcription as a part of its replication process
  • Hepatitis C virus abbreviated HCV is a virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus.  Genetically-diverse hepaciviruses have been isolated from bats, dogs, cows, horses, primates and rodents.  But Hepatitis C virus itself affects only human beings and chimpanzees.
  • Hepatitis  D virus – abbreviated HDV. The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus requiring the presence of the HBV for the completion of its life cycle. The origins of this virus remain unknown, although suspicions seem to point to laboratory origins.  In other words it is man-made.  Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection).  It belongs to the Genus: Deltavirus
  • Hepatitis E virus– is a virus of the genus Orthohepevirus, and has been reassigned into the Hepeviridae family. Thus far, four HEV genotypes that infect humans are recognized. Genotype 1 and 2 infections have been identified exclusively in humans, whereas genotype 3 and 4 viruses have been isolated from swine, deer, mongoose, cattle, and rabbits in addition to humans. Genotypes 3 and 4 are ubiquitous in swine.

So as you can see despite the name they are unrelated, different families and different genuses. 





















HBsAg, HBeAg

Core antigen

Delta antigen



Superstar_Billy_Graham wrestling champion has Hepatitis C,
which required him to have a liver transplant in 2002

Although unrelated, they do, however, often co-exist, the presence of one virus often signals the need to look for others in this group.   Hepatitis E virus and hepatitis A virus coinfection has been over 30% in some research studies, with hepatitis E virus and hepatitis B virus coinfection over 20%, and hepatitis E virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection over 35%.   “The incidence of hepatitis E virus coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses indicated that this pathogen is more frequent than expected”.

The one thing they have in common is that Hepatitis viruses can all cause hepatitis – liver inflammation – but they are not the only viruses that can do this, other example viruses that can also cause liver inflammation include cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, yellow fever and even herpes simplex virus.  Furthermore liver inflammation can be caused by heavy alcohol use, certain medications, and toxins. 

To make matters all the more confusing this group of viruses can be the cause of a great number of diseases related to the other organs of the body.  As we will see shortly a range of so-called auto-immune diseases can be caused by this family, such as SLE, pancreatic diseases and diabetes mellitus, along with a host of other diseases including cancer and encephalitis.

So the name these viruses have been given is meaningless.  Not only are they not the exclusive cause of Hepatitis – liver inflammation, - they can be the cause of diseases unrelated to the liver.  We might even be better thinking of them as Virus A, B, C, D and E without the additional hepatitis tag. 

David Crosby required a liver transplant due to HCV in 1995


If we look at these viruses in detail one thing does become apparent, they are affecting a very very large number of people:

  • Hepatitis A virus - Globally, around 1.4 million symptomatic cases occur each year and about 114 million infections (symptomatic and asymptomatic).  Acute hepatitis A resulted in 11,200 deaths in 2015.
  • Hepatitis B virus - About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 350 million who have chronic infections. An estimated two billion people have been infected at one time or another.  Another 129 million new infections occurred in 2013. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. About 300,000 of these are due to liver cancer. The disease is common in East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where between 5 and 10% of adults are chronically infected.    
  • Hepatitis C virus  - An estimated 143 million people (2%) worldwide are infected with hepatitis C as of 2015. In 2013 about 11 million new cases occurred. It occurs most commonly in Africa and Central and East Asia. About 167,000 deaths due to liver cancer and 326,000 deaths due to cirrhosis occurred in 2015 due to hepatitis C
  • Hepatitis D virus - Worldwide, about 20 million people may be infected with HDV.  There are at least 8 genotypes of this virus (HDV-1 to HDV-8).  Genotype I has been isolated in Europe, North America, Africa and some Asia. Genotype II has been found in Japan, Taiwan, and Yakutia (Russia). Genotype III has been found exclusively in South America (Peru, Colombia, and Venezuela). Some genomes from Taiwan and the Okinawa islands have been difficult to type but have been placed in genotype 2.
  • Hepatitis E virus -  Hepatitis E newly infected about 28 million people in 2013.  In the United Kingdom, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has said that the number of human hepatitis E cases increased by 39% between 2011 and 2012.
    Major outbreaks of Hepatitis E ,for example, have occurred in
    • New Delhi, India - 30,000 cases in 1955–1956
    • Burma - 20,000 cases in 1976–1977
    • Kashmir, India - 52,000 cases in 1978
    • Kanpur, India - 79,000 cases in 1991
    • China - 100,000 cases between 1986 and 1988

The four genotypes identified include Genotype 1 isolated from tropical and several subtropical countries in Asia and Africa;  Genotype 2 isolated from Mexico, Nigeria, and Chad; Genotype 3 found almost worldwide including Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America;  Genotype 4 appears to be limited. 

Natalie Cole said that the hep C virus had likely been in her system for decades, from heroin use in her youth


Infection by all these viruses may severely impairs a person’s ability to work, care for family members, and perform other daily activities. In all cases there may be diarrhoea, nausea and fatigue with fever.  It has been noted that itchy skin has been an indication as a possible symptom of all hepatitis virus types.

It is noticeable that a number of symptoms are more a direct result of the pharmaceuticals given than the illnesses themselves.  For example, anaemia is a common adverse event associated with the use of ribavirin, and, more recently, the new HCV protease inhibitors. [PMID: 23386076]







Incubation period

20–40 days

45–160 days

15–150 days

30–60 days

15–60 days



Occasionally severe


Exacerbates symptoms of HBV

Normal patients, mild;
pregnant women, severe;



5–10% chronic

70% chronic

chronic w/ HBV


 Pamela Anderson has been quite open about getting hep C 'through a tattoo needle she shared with her ex-husband, rocker Tommy Lee'

Hepatitis A

The risk for symptomatic infection is directly related to age, with more than 80% of adults having symptoms and the majority of children having either asymptomatic or unrecognized infections.  When symptoms occur, they typically last eight weeks and may include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, light or clay coloured faeces, jaundice, fever, appetite loss, urine that is a dark amber colour, and abdominal pain.

Hepatitis B

Acute infection with hepatitis B virus produces acute viral hepatitis, an illness that begins with general ill-health, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, body aches, mild fever, and dark urine, and then may progress to development of jaundice. The illness lasts for a few weeks and then gradually improves in most affected people. Acute hepatitis B infection does not usually require treatment and most adults clear the infection spontaneously.

Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years.

Hepatitis D

Hepatitis D (hepatitis delta) can propagate only in the presence of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmission of HDV can occur either via simultaneous infection with HBV (coinfection) or superimposed on chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis B carrier state (superinfection).

Both superinfection and coinfection with HDV results in more severe complications compared to infection with HBV alone. These complications include a greater likelihood of experiencing liver failure in acute infections and a rapid progression to liver cirrhosis. In combination with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis D has the highest fatality rate of all the hepatitis infections, at 20%.

Hepatitis C

The founding member and bassist of The Grateful Dead
contracted Hepatitis C in 1992

During the initial infection people often have mild or no symptoms.   Symptoms are generally mild and vague, including a decreased appetite, fatigue, nausea, muscle or joint pains, and weight loss.   Most cases of acute infection are not associated with jaundice.  Occasionally a fever, dark urine, and abdominal pain occur.  There is some evidence that viruses can cause bruising as a side effect, principally via the effect they have on the circulatory system.  For example:

We reviewed 62 patients with HCV infection who were from 3 months and 19 years of age. Sixty percent presented with clinical symptoms of fatigue, joint-abdominal pain, bruising/bleeding, or other non-specific symptoms. PMID:  19593250

The infection resolves spontaneously in 10–50% of cases, which occurs more frequently in individuals who are young and female.

The virus persists in the liver in about 75% to 85% of those initially infected.  Early on chronic infection typically has minimal or no symptoms although later there can be fatigue and mild cognitive problems.   Over many years however, it often leads to liver disease and occasionally cirrhosis. Fatty changes to the liver occur in about half of those infected and are usually present before cirrhosis develops.  Hepatitis C is the leading reason for liver transplantation, though the virus usually recurs after transplantation.

Hepatitis E

HEV can cause jaundice, fatigue, diarrhoea and nausea. The symptomatic phase coincides with elevated hepatic aminotransferase levels.  Recovery leads to virus clearance from the blood, while the virus may persist in stool for much longer. Recovery is also marked by disappearance of IgM antibodies and increase of levels of IgG antibodies.  Hepatitis E occasionally develops into an acute, severe liver disease, and is fatal in about 2% of all cases.

Pregnant women show a more severe course of infection than other populations. Mortality rates of 20% to 25% and hepatic failure have been reported. Besides signs of an acute infections, adverse maternal and fetal outcomes may include preterm delivery, abortion, stillbirth, and intrauterine foetal and neonatal death.  This implies that hepatitis E has a serious mutagenic effect on the fetus.

Transmission and Cause

The following table from Wikipedia shows that two viruses are enteral and three parenteral.

  • Enteral means the virus is caught by ingestion naturally via the mouth and oesophagus and then by passing through the intestinal tract. 
  • Parenteral is defined as something that is put inside the body, but not by swallowing. An example of something parenteral is an injection given into the muscle on the leg, or a subcutaneous injection, or through some other artificial opening.















5–10% chronic

70% chronic

chronic w/ HBV


  •  Chronic infection - Notice that the three viruses that are parenteral may produce chronic infection – that is (of an illness) persisting for a long time or constantly recurring.  This is because these three viruses exhibit latencyViral latency is the ability of a virus to remain dormant within the host cell.  The viral genome can remain latent either as an episome or integrated in the host chromosome.  During latency the pathogen maintains the potential to reactivate, resume replication, and cause recurrent disease.  Generally it does so when the immune system has been compromised.
  • Acute infection - In contrast, the two viruses that are enteral produce acute infection - an acute viral infection is characterized by rapid onset of disease, a relatively brief period of symptoms, and resolution within days. It is usually accompanied by early production of infectious virions and elimination of infection by the host immune system.

Hepatitis A and E viruses

HPA and E viruses are caught naturally by ingestion via the mouth and oesophagus and then by passing through the intestine.  Following ingestion, HAV enters the bloodstream through the epithelium of the oropharynx or intestine.  The blood carries the virus to its target, the liver, where it multiplies within hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (liver macrophages).

  • Contamination of water supplies or food - Hepatitis A and E viruses are spread mainly by the faecal-oral route due to faecal contamination of water supplies or food; person-to-person transmission is uncommon.  Infections often occur in conditions of poor sanitation and overcrowding.  Outbreaks of epidemic hepatitis A or E most commonly occur after heavy rainfalls and monsoons because of their disruption of water supplies.
    Ingestion of shellfish cultivated in polluted water is associated with a high risk of infection.  HAV can survive for months in fresh and salt water.  
  • Undercooked pork - Four HEV genotypes that infect humans are recognized. Genotypes 3 and 4 are ubiquitous in swine, and undercooked pork may be a major source of zoonotic infections of humans.

Amitabh Bachchan contracted Hepatitis B through blood transfusion

Hepatitis B, C and D viruses

Transmission of HBV results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing blood. It is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.  HCV is predominantly a blood-borne virus.  The routes of transmission of HDV are similar to those for hepatitis B.  So all these three viruses can be transmitted via blood and to a certain extent other body fluids.  Examples of activity where this occurs include:

  • Intravenous drug use - particularly by injecting drug users.  It is believed that ten million intravenous drug users are infected with hepatitis C; China (1.6 million), the United States (1.5 million), and Russia (1.3 million) have the highest absolute total
  • Sexual intercourse – but more particularly anal sex
  • Use of Assisted reproductive technology and IVF
  • Dental and medical work – it appears the risks are there for both dentist and patient.  Poor hygiene in public and private medical and dental facilities is known to be the primary cause of the spread of HCV in Egypt, the country with highest rate of infection in the world
  • Surgery – via for example, improperly sterilized surgical equipment.  Caesarean sections have resulted in transmission from mothers to children
  • Transplants – Organs can carry the viruses.  Furthermore, more than 2 million human tissue transplants (bone, tendon, cartilage, skin, cornea, amniotic membrane, stem cells, heart valve, blood vessel, etc.), are performed worldwide every year. And risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission has become a global safety concern. The rate of HBV transmission from donors to recipients of allografts is unknown. 
  • Dialysis - Impaired renal function is associated with a high risk of chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis are at an increased risk of viral transmission due to the frequent necessity of blood product transfer as well as use of contaminated dialysate or dialysis materials. Additionally, health professionals can cause viral spread via contaminated hands and poor hygiene. [PMID: 25914776]
  • Blood transfusions
  • Clotting factor use - Hemophilia can be treated by replacing missing blood clotting factors. ... Clotting factors are replaced by injecting (infusing) a clotting factor concentrate into a vein. Infusions of clotting factors help blood to clot normally.
  • Transmission from chronic sufferers - Father-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is possible, as is mother infant/foetus transmission.  Viruses may also be spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth.  Living with an infected person increases the risk of infection.  It is unfortunate that some chronically infected people show no symptoms.  Children often do not have symptoms when infected, but are still able to infect others, thus a child’s scratch or nose bleed may appear innocuous but may spread the viruses.
  • Injections - Patient-to-patient transmission through contaminated medical equipment has been recognised as a major problem in some countries.  Injections in which unsterile needles are used, syringes are reused or contamination of multidose vaccine vials, all carry great risk.  “ample evidence exists that reuse of unsterile needles and syringes is common in developing countries. PMID: 7635609”
    Spanish anaesthetist Juan Maeso infected 275 patients between 1988 and 1997 as he used the same needles to give both himself and the patients opioids. For this he was jailed.
  • Vaccinations - Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) was identified as an infection distinct from Hepatitis A through its contamination of measles, mumps, and yellow fever vaccines in the 1930s and 1940s. These vaccines contained HBV-infected human serum as a stabilizing agent. I think it should be clear that as a consequence far more people became infected than would otherwise have been.  But the vaccines for HBV and HAV may themselves be spreading the disease – this is discussed under the treatment section below.
  • Tattoos - Permanent decorative tattooing involves the introduction of exogenous pigments and/or dyes into the dermis to produce the permanent design. Despite improved hygiene in the tattoo parlours of Western countries, this procedure still carries risk and one of these is the transfer of the hepatitis virus.  This can be due to either improperly sterilized equipment or contamination of the dyes being used.
    Various complications may occur right after tattooing, from benign complications such as transient limb edema, palpable lymph nodes, and contact eczema, to more severe ones such as the inoculation of virulent microorganisms into the dermis, potentially life-threatening cellulitis, and necrotizing fasciitis or cutaneous vasculitis.  PMID: 22944541

A number of cultural or ritual practices have also been shown to be a mode of spread for these viruses, including

  • circumcision,
  • genital mutilation,
  • ritual scarification,

Biting insects may be sufficient to maintain endemic infection in the tropics, where people receive large number of insect bites.

Common causes – pharmaceuticals


The gastrointestinal system is designed to be able to handle pathogens.  The mouth has natural bacteria, the stomach has acid, the gall bladder secretes bile, and the intestinal flora contain a host of ‘friendly’ bacteria and other microbes, designed to repel pathogens.  Diarrhoea and vomiting are a sign that this system is working.

But a host of pharmaceuticals or extremely unwise surgical procedures have been developed which completely destroy this naturally effective immunological response:

Thereafter any complications and more serious disease is thus likely to have been caused by pharmaceuticals all of which compromise natural immune reaction.  

If we put this simply, both Hepatitis A and E viruses pose no threat as the body is able to handle them.  The threat actually comes from doctor prescribed pharmaceuticals.

And in the case of the other viruses, the immune system may actually be able to face the threat unless it has been compromised by pharmaceuticals.  In immunocompromised subjects—particularly those on immunosuppressants -  the entire group of hepatitis viruses may cause chronic infection leading to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis and via the infection of other organs, death.  Acute liver failure may also occur in the weak and already diseased especially the elderly.

Common cause all viruses – laboratories


It is extremely clear from all the papers on PubMed that a major source of new variants of these viruses and new strains are research workers.  For example

“HEV usually replicates to low titers in vivo; growing it in cultured cells is exceedingly difficult, and much of the virus life cycle is unknown. In a major breakthrough, Okamoto and coworkers recently adapted a genotype 3 and a genotype 4 strain to replicate to high titers in two human cell lines, A549 lung cells and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.”

In other words these scientists have created new viruses capable of attacking the lungs and the liver of human beings.  Not only are they creating new strains of these viruses that can attack human beings, but they are also creating new strains that attack other animals – where no virus existed before

We generated a murine tropic HCV (mtHCV or Jc1/mCD81) strain harboring three mutations within the viral envelope proteins that allowed productive entry into mouse cell lines. [doi: 10.1128/mBio.01915-16 8 November 2016 mBio vol. 7 no. 6 e01915-16]

Hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) have been found in ‘higher primates’, such as chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, and gibbons.  There are some interesting links here with laboratory animals and their poor treatment and the spread of these viruses, in much the same way as HIV is suspected to be a laboratory derived disease.

“We discuss the current theories of the origin and evolution of HBV and propose a model that includes cross-species transmissions and subsequent recombination events on a genetic backbone of genotype C HBV infection”.

If we wish to find the cause of these viruses and all their variants we need look no farther than research scientists.  Hepatitis D is likely to be a laboratory created disease.  Hepatitis E was ‘discovered’ during an epidemic of hepatitis, which occurred in Kashmir Valley in 1978. The epidemic involved an estimated 52,000 cases of icteric hepatitis with 1,700 deaths. The disease had unique clinical and epidemiological features, which rather indicates it was a newly created virus.

Common cause – biological warfare

During the past century, more than 500 million people died of infectious diseases. Several tens of thousands of these deaths were due to the deliberate release of pathogens or toxins. 

The Japanese, for example tested at least 25 different disease-causing agents on prisoners and unsuspecting civilians in WWII. During the war, the Japanese army poisoned more than 1,000 water wells in Chinese villages to study cholera and typhus outbreaks. Japanese planes dropped plague-infested fleas over Chinese cities or distributed them by means of saboteurs in rice fields and along roads. Some of the epidemics they caused persisted for years and continued to kill more than 30,000 people in 1947, long after the Japanese had surrendered.  The German army was the first to use weapons of mass destruction, both biological and chemical, during the First World War.

The US biological warfare programme started in 1941 on a small scale, but increased during the war to include more than 5,000 people by 1945.  Soon after the war, the US military started open-air tests, exposing test animals, human volunteers and unsuspecting civilians to both pathogenic and non-pathogenic microbes. A release of bacteria from naval vessels off the coasts of Virginia and San Francisco infected many people, including about 800,000 people in the Bay area alone. Bacterial aerosols were released at more than 200 sites, including bus stations and airports. The most infamous test was the 1966 contamination of the New York metro system.

The Soviet Union established Biopreparat, a gigantic biowarfare project that, at its height, employed more than 50,000 people in various research and production centres. The size and scope of the Soviet Union's efforts were truly staggering: they produced and stockpiled tons of anthrax bacilli and smallpox virus, some for use in intercontinental ballistic missiles, and engineered multidrug-resistant bacteria, including plague. They worked on haemorrhagic fever viruses, some of the deadliest pathogens that humankind has encountered.

Two international treaties outlawed biological weapons in 1925 and 1972, but they have largely failed to stop countries from conducting offensive weapons research and large-scale production of biological weapons. And as our knowledge of the biology of disease-causing agents—viruses, bacteria and toxins—increases, it is clear that modified pathogens have been released both deliberately and accidentally by insane individuals who have gone to the laboratories mentioned above and by the biowarfare programmes.

Purver R. (2002) Chemical and Biological Terrorism: the Threat According to the Open Literature. Canadian Security and Intelligence Service
Apart from state-sponsored biowarfare programmes, individuals and non-governmental groups have also gained access to potentially dangerous microorganisms, and some have used them - organized groups or individuals with sufficient determination can obtain dangerous biological agents.  . A few examples include the spread of hepatitis, parasitic infections, severe diarrhoea and gastroenteritis.


Other Illnesses caused by the Hepatitis family of viruses

A host of other illnesses can be caused by these viruses other than liver inflammation and disease in chronic sufferers.  But what you will find is that the two main culprits are Hepatitis B and C, and of the two HBV is by far the biggest culprit.  This has especial interest because one would have thought that the availability and widespread use of the vaccine would have improved matters, but it clearly hasn’t, an aspect we will explore more shortly in the Treatments section.

The list of illnesses and diseases is long, and the proof is provided by papers from PubMed, but we have relegated the complete and very detailed list to the 'Scinece' section, because it would have made this section almost unmanageable.  So for the detail see Other Illnesses caused by the Hepatitis family of viruses.

Briefly, these illnesses are

  • Cancer - liver cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, pancreatic cancer and testicular cancer

  • Fibromyalgia

  • Infertility

  • Multiple myeloma and leukemia

  • Skin diseases

  • Gall bladder disease

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Thyroid disease

  • Nervous system diseases including Guillain-Barré syndrome

  • Blood circulatory system disease

  • Heart failure and arrhythmia

  • Kidney disease

  • Arthritis

  • Pancreas disease and diabetes

  • Sjögren's syndrome

  • Inherited illness and genetic mutations

Diagnosis and treatment


Diagnosis requires blood testing, as the symptoms are similar to those of a number of other diseases.  Metagenomic testing is one accurate and quick method of testing for the viruses.


The best treatment is actually prevention.  Clean water, better sanitation, frequent hand washing and properly cooked food, avoiding shellfish found in polluted waters.  Change of sexual habits and the use of condoms will also help. The word ‘No’ can be a very effective preventative.  Otherwise avoiding the stated causes is a preventative.

HAV virus is resistant to detergent, acid (pH 1), solvents (e.g., ether, chloroform), drying, and temperatures up to 60°C. But HAV can be inactivated by chlorine treatment (drinking water), formalin (0.35%, 37°C, 72 hours), peracetic acid (2%, 4 hours), beta-propiolactone (0.25%, 1 hour), and UV radiation (2 μW/cm2/min).

The vaccination dilemma

The medical community recommend the use of vaccines, not only in their patinets, but there is now a widespreadcampaign to 'encourage' medical staff to have the vaccinations.  And these are as follows.  There are no tested approved vaccines against hepatitis C, D or E, although vaccines for C and E have been developed:


Excipient ingredients at at Jan 2018

Hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix)

Aluminum hydroxide, amino acid supplement, formalin, MRC-5 cellular protein, neomycin sulfate, phosphate buffers, polysorbate 20

Hepatitis A vaccine (VAQTA)

Amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, bovine albumin or serum, formaldehyde, MRC-5 cellular protein, sodium borate

Hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B)

Aluminum hydroxide, phosphate buffers, yeast protein

Hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB)

Amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, amino acids, dextrose, formaldehyde, mineral salts, potassium aluminum sulfate, soy peptone, yeast protein

HepA/HepB vaccine (Twinrix)

Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate, amino acids, formalin, MRC-5 cells, neomycin sulfate, phosphate buffers, polysorbate 20, yeast protein

 Hepatitis A virus

Hepatitis A virus is under natural conditions caught via the oral route.  This gives the immune system plenty of time to react and as a consequence infection, though common in children in developing countries, reaching nearly 100% incidence, produces lifelong immunity.  The virus only enters the blood stream to cause serious complications, if the gastrointestinal system defences have been compromised. 
As we have already seen, pharmaceuticals [antibiotics, antacids, PPIs etc] and toxins do this.  Thus if the person avoids the pharmaceuticals and any toxin laden food, a vaccine is not needed.  It should also be noted that by injecting the person, the virus enters the bloodstream immediately, whereas normally it would be contained by the gastrointestinal system.  Vaccination is thus allowing Hepatitis A which would normally be an acute illness to become a chronic one.

Hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis B virus  exhibits latency.  Injecting a child or any person with a virus that exhibits latency, especially straight into the blood stream is madness.  In effect one has introduced a virus, where no virus existed before, in a way that almost guarantees it will become a latent infection. 

There is thus the appalling possibility that Hepatitis B is being spread by vaccines. 

As we can see above the virus itself causes a number of truly serious life threatening diseases, diseases that appear later than the initial infection, as such any number of the diseases shown above could have actually been caused by the vaccine not an infection.  Apart from the diseases above we also have:

Multiple sclerosis

A link between the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been shown in several studies …..

These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immunization with the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine is associated with an increased risk of MS, and challenge the idea that the relation between hepatitis B vaccination and risk of MS is well understood.  PMID:  15365133


Since the implementation of the mass vaccination campaign against hepatitis B in France, the appearance of multiple sclerosis, sometimes occurring in the aftermath of vaccinations, led to the publication of epidemiological international studies. …. The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between hepatitis B vaccine and multiple sclerosis may be causal.  PMID:  25395338

Fibromyalgia and Chronic fatigue syndrome

The objectives of this study were to gather information regarding demographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with either fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic fatigue (CFS) following hepatitis B vaccination (HBVv) and furthermore to apply the recently suggested criteria of autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndromes induced by adjuvants (ASIA).
Medical records of 19 patients with CFS and/or fibromyalgia following HBVv immunization were analyzed. …... Manifestations that were commonly reported included neurological manifestations (84.2 %), musculoskeletal (78.9 %), psychiatric (63.1 %), fatigue (63.1 %), gastrointestinal complains (58 %) and mucocutaneous manifestations (36.8 %). Autoantibodies were detected in 71 % of patients tested. ASIA criteria were fulfilled in all patients eluding the plausible link between ASIA and CFS/FM.  PMID:  25427994

Encephalitis, macular degeneration and blindness

A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature....The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included

  • influenza (21 cases),
  • human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases),
  • hepatitis A or B (8 cases),
  • rabies (5 cases),
  • measles (5 cases),
  • rubella (5 cases),
  • yellow fever (3 cases),
  • anthrax (2 cases),
  • meningococcus (2 cases) and

Usually the symptoms of the CNS demyelinating syndrome appear few days following the immunization (mean: 14.2 days) but there are cases where the clinical presentation was delayed (more than 3 weeks or even up to 5 months post-vaccination) (approximately a third of all the reported cases). In terms of the clinical presentation and the affected CNS areas, there is a great diversity among the reported cases of post-vaccination acute demyelinating syndromes. Optic neuritis was the prominent clinical presentation in 38 cases, multifocal disseminated demyelination in 30, myelitis in 24 and encephalitis in 17.  PMID: 24514081

Aluminium adjuvant

As you can see all the vaccines contain aluminium as adjuvant.  Aluminium destroys the blood brain barrier and thus leaves one open to brain damage from whatever pathogens, heavy metals or toxins are in your blood stream, as such the vaccines may pose more danger than the virus.

Hepatitis-B vaccine (HBVv) [is used to] prevent HBV-infection and associated liver diseases. However, concerns regarding its safety, particularly among patients with autoimmune diseases were raised. Moreover, the aluminum adjuvant in HBVv was [of concern]. ….. Immunization with HBVv induced

  • acceleration of kidney disease manifested by high anti-dsDNA antibodies, early onset of proteinuria, histological damage and deposition of HBs antigen in the kidney
  • decreased cells counts mainly of the red cell lineage
  • memory deficits and increased activated microglia in different areas of the brain
  • anxiety-like behavior

In conclusion, herein we report that immunization with the HBVv aggravated kidney disease …. Immunization with either HBVv or alum affected blood counts, neurocognitive functions and brain gliosis. Our data support the concept that different component of vaccines may be linked with immune and autoimmune mediated adverse events.  PMID:  25042822

Excipient toxicity

The addition of formaldehyde [also called formalin], and polysorbate-20 - a detergent, won’t improve matters. 

“In view of its widespread use, toxicity, and volatility, formaldehyde poses a significant danger to human health. In 2011, the US National Toxicology Program described formaldehyde as "known to be a human carcinogen"

Remember that Acute hepatitis B infection does not usually require treatment and most adults clear the infection spontaneously.   But since vaccination was introduced at least  350 million have chronic infection.  And who knows how many may have died from all the other diseases and the link was never made.


References and further reading

We have used a very large number of papers in this entry.  Rather than list their names, we have given you the PubMed reference number so that you can look up the paper if you wish to.  There are two papers worth reading even if you don’t read the others:

  • Species Association of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Non-Human Apes; Evidence for Recombination between Gorilla and Chimpanzee Variants- - Sinéad Lyons , Colin Sharp, Matthew LeBreton, Cyrille F. Djoko, John A. Kiyang, Felix Lankester, Tafon G. Bibila, Ubald Tamoufé, Joseph Fair, Nathan D. Wolfe, Peter Simmonds Published: March 14, 2012  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033430
  • EMBO Rep. 2003 Jun; 4(Suppl 1): S47–S52.  doi:  10.1038/sj.embor.embor849 PMCID: PMC1326439  Science and Society - The history of biological warfare - Friedrich Frischknecht - Human experimentation, modern nightmares and lone madmen in the twentieth century

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