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Mouth and tooth disease

Category: Illness or disabilities

Type

Involuntary

Introduction and description

According to Wikipedia “In animal anatomy, the mouth is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is also the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth”.

Teeth, found in the mouths of many vertebrates,  are used to break down food.  The shape of the animal's teeth are related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing and grinding. Carnivores, on the other hand, need canines to kill prey and to tear meat.

And illnesses and diseases of the mouth and teeth can cause spiritual experiences.

This catch all section has been added to enable me to enter observations related to disease of both the mouth and the teeth which are not covered by the more detailed sections on

Symptoms

1: crown,
2: root,
3: enamel,
4: dentin and dentin tubules,
5: pulp chamber,
6: blood vessels and nerve within root canal,
7: periodontal ligament,
8: apex and periapical region,
9: alveolar bone.

Toothache may also be called Odontalgia.  The term covers both pain in the teeth and/or their supporting structures, gums, jaw and the muscles of the jaw.  It may result from dental diseases or pain referred to the teeth by non-dental diseases.  Common problems include:

  •  inflammation of the pulp -  usually in response to tooth decay, dental trauma, or other factors,
  • dentin hypersensitivity -short, sharp pain, usually associated with exposed root surfaces
  • apical periodontitis - inflammation of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the root apex
  • dental abscesses - localized collections of pus, such as apical abscess, pericoronal abscess, and periodontal abscess
  •  alveolar osteitis - "dry socket", a possible complication of tooth extraction, with loss of the blood clot and exposure of bone
  • gingivitis  and acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis - a gum infection, also called "trenchmouth"
Lateral periodontal abscess (blue arrows)
due to a fracture (green arrows)

Some of the symptoms of mouth and tooth disease include: 

  • Redness or bleeding of gums
  • Ulcers, blood blisters and open wounds
  • Gum swelling
  • Halitosis, or bad breath
  • A persistent metallic taste in the mouth
  • Receding gums
  • Losing teeth
  • Loose teeth

But the principle symptom is pain - Extreme pain

 

Causes

Heavy metals

the main nerves

- lead, for example, is known to cause tooth decay and tooth loss.  Lead's effects on the sense of taste may result in astringency and a metallic taste in the mouth.  The interaction of different sorts of fillings in the mouth - metal, ceramic and so on can cause a small electric current, which attacks the nerves;  heavy metals can also attack the tooth pulp directly.

[Interactions between filling materials and the dental pulp -  Mjor IA. Inf Dent. 1983 Nov 3;65(38):3605-12. French. PMID: 6420339]

It should be noted that the mercury in dental amalgam fillings has a record of producing ill health in other organs as well.

dental amalgam fillings exerts an effect on kidney tubular functions in children. Oxidative stress may have played a role in this mechanism. The results of this study would also suggest that urinary NAG is the most sensitive of all the investigated renal biomarkers.  PMID: 22683759

Bacterial infection

There are a number of bacteria implicated in mouth and tooth diseases, for example, Scarlet fever is caused by streptococci species, and starts as tonsilitis and pharyngitis before involving the soft palate and the tongue.

Many studies indicate a strong association of

  • Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans
  • Bacteroides forsythus
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Prevotella intermedia,
  • Wolinella recta
  • Capnocytophaga species may be important in pubertal gingivitis.

An unnamed spirochete related to Treponema pallidum has been identified in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis lesions
PMID: 1325846”

Viruses

 Herpes simplex infection is very common in the mouth and lips. This virus can cause blisters and sores around the mouth and lips. Although many people get infected with the virus, only 10% actually develop the sores. The sores may last anywhere from 3–10 days and are very infectious. Recurrent infections may be brought on by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress.
Mumps of the salivary glands is a viral infection of the parotid glands. This results in painful swelling at the sides of the mouth in both adults and children.   Other viruses are also implicated - like the HPV .

Head and neck cancer, including oral cancer, is the sixth most common cancer in humans worldwide. More than 90% of oral cancers are of squamous cell carcinoma type. Recent studies have shown a strong relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and head and neck cancer, especially oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Moreover, the incidence of HPV-related OSCC appears to be on the rise while HPV-unrelated OSCC tends to have stabilized in the past decades. p16, a tumor suppressor gene, normally functions as a regulator of the cell cycle. Upon infection with high-risk types of HPV (HR-HPV), particularly types 16, 18, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 70, the expression of p16 is aberrantly overexpressed. Therefore, the expression of p16 is widely used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in head and neck cancer. PMID: 26434816

Radiation

A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. .... Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of other cancer risk factors agents, such as human papilloma viruses (HPV) and irradiation.  PMID:  26685475

 Fungal infection

 

Oral candidiasis is by far the most common fungal infection that occurs in the mouth. It usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals and people with dentures and tongue piercing. The typical signs are a white patch that may be associated with burning, soreness, irritation or a white cheesy like appearance.

Physical hurt

- surgical, thermal, mechanical or electrical trauma to the oral soft tissues can cause traumatic oral ulceration.  Severe physical hurt can result in misaligned jaws and Temporomandibular joint dysfunction.  It is generally not realised that facelifts can cause problems:

Complications of Facelift Surgery [Updated: Mar 17, 2016; Author: Sachin S Pawar, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA]

Complications following facelift surgery or rhytidectomy can be devastating, particularly because of the elective nature of this procedure. As with all surgical procedures, complication prevention is paramount.
Proper patient selection, mastery of pertinent anatomy, attention to meticulous surgical technique, and conscientious postoperative care are all important factors in preventing facelift surgery complications.  Complications include
(1) hematoma,
(2) nerve injuries,
(3) infection,
(4) skin flap necrosis,
(5) hypertrophic scarring,
(6) alopecia and hairline/earlobe deformities, and
(7) parotid gland pseudocyst.

Toxins

- for example, smoke, chemicals, pesticides, fungicides, insecticides, air pollutants, volatiles and gases and Nanoparticles  

Links between environmental chemicals and human health have emerged over the last few decades, but the effects on oral health have been less studied. Therefore, it was aimed to study the relationships of different sets of urinary chemical concentrations and adult oral health conditions in a national and population-based setting.
Data was retrieved from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2011-2012 including demographics, self-reported oral health conditions and urinary environmental chemical concentrations (one third representative sample of the study population). ….. Of 4566 American adults aged 30-80, 541 adults (11.9 %) reported poor teeth health while 1020 adults (22.4 %) reported fair teeth.

  • Eight hundred fifty-five people (19.1 %) claimed to have gum disease, presented with higher levels of urinary cadmium, cobalt and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Six hundred three adults (13.3 %) had bone loss around the mouth, presented with higher levels of cadmium, nitrate, thiocyanate, propyl paraben and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) had tooth loose not due to injury, presented with higher level of cadmium, thiocyanate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Eight hundred forty-five adults (18.5 %) with higher levels of lead, uranium, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but lower level of triclosan noticed their teeth did not look right.
  • Three hundred fifty-one adults (7.7 %) often had aching in the mouth and 650 (14.3 %) had it occasionally, presented with higher levels of phthalates, pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Benzophenone-3 and triclosan elicited protective effects.

Regulation of environmental chemicals in prevention of adult oral health might need to be considered in future health and environmental policies.  PMID:  26018285

notice the prevalence of heavy metals -described above.

Parasites

- the following quote is from the paper referenced below

"Zoonoses are infections transmitted from animal to man, either directly (through direct contact or contact with animal products) or indirectly (through an intermediate vector, such as an arthropod). The causative agents include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi.
The purpose of this review is to make an accurate examination of all zoonotic diseases that can be responsible of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) involvement............A total of 164 articles were selected and examined. Larynx was the most commonly involved ENT organ, followed by oral cavity, pharynx, and neck.
Bacteria were the most representative microorganisms involved. Nose and major salivary glands were affected most frequently by protozoa; paranasal sinus, oral cavity, ear, neck, nerves and upper airway by bacteria; and larynx by fungi. PMID: 24423708"

Extreme emotion

The role of extreme emotion in causing mouth and tooth problems seems weak until one realises how inter-connected the response of the immune system is with usually negative emotion.  The mouth contains a flora of bacteria which - just like the intestines is finely balanced.  Although we have the heading 'bacteria' above as a cause, the picture is more complex.  The following is long but explains it well

The composition of the oral microbiome differs from one intraoral site to another, reflecting in part the host response and immune capacity at each site. By focusing on two major oral infections, periodontal disease and caries, new principles of disease emerge.

  • Periodontal disease affects the soft tissues and bone that support the teeth.
  • Caries is a unique infection of the dental hard tissues.

The initiation of both diseases is marked by an increase in the complexity of the microbiome.
In periodontitis, pathobionts and keystone pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis appear in greater proportion than in health. As a keystone pathogen, P. gingivalis impairs host immune responses and appears necessary but not sufficient to cause periodontitis.
Historically, dental caries had been causally linked to Streptococcus mutans.

Contemporary microbiome studies now indicate that singular pathogens are not obvious in either caries or periodontitis.   Both diseases appear to result from a perturbation among relatively minor constituents in local microbial communities resulting in dysbiosis.

Emergent consortia of the minor members of the respective microbiomes act synergistically to stress the ability of the host to respond and protect. In periodontal disease, host protection first occurs at the level of innate gingival epithelial immunity. Secretory IgA antibody and other salivary antimicrobial systems also act against periodontopathic and cariogenic consortia. When the gingival immune response is impaired, periodontal tissue pathology results when matrix metalloproteinases are released from neutrophils and T cells mediate alveolar bone loss.
In caries, several species are acidogenic and aciduric and appear to work synergistically to promote demineralization of the enamel and dentin.   PMID:  25447398

so maybe anti-bacterial mouth washes are not a good idea, you kill the 'good' and the 'bad' and destroy the balance and the biome.

Treatment

Find the cause.

How it works

The principal mechanism by which the more negative spiritual experiences appear to work is pain - Extreme pain

References and further reading

  • J Infect Dev Ctries. 2014 Jan 15;8(1):17-23. doi: 10.3855/jidc.4206. Ear, nose and throat (ENT) involvement in zoonotic diseases: a systematic review. Galletti B, Mannella VK, Santoro R, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Freni F, Galletti C, Galletti F, Cascio A. University Hospital G. Martino, Messina, Italy. bgalletti@unime.it.
  • Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2015 Oct;22(20):15636-45. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-4749-3. Epub 2015 May 28. Urinary heavy metals, phthalates, phenols, thiocyanate, parabens, pesticides, polyaromatic hydrocarbons but not arsenic or polyfluorinated compounds are associated with adult oral health: USA NHANES, 2011-2012.  Shiue I1,2.  Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Benton, NE7 7XA, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK. ivy.shiue@northumbria.ac.uk.  2 Owens Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. ivy.shiue@northumbria.ac.uk.
  • Dent Update. 2015 Oct;42(8):766-8, 771-2, 775-6 passim.  Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 5: Risk Factors (Other).  Kalavrezos N, Scully C.
  • Public Health. 2014 Mar;128(3):231-8. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2013.12.002. Epub 2014 Mar 3. Prevention of HPV-related oral cancer: assessing dentists' readiness. Daley E1, Dodd V2, DeBate R3, Vamos C3, Wheldon C3, Kline N3, Smith S3, Chandler R3, Dyer K3, Helmy H3, Driscoll A2.

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