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Thyroid disease

Category: Illness or disabilities

Type

Involuntary

Introduction and description

The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands.  It is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage (which forms the laryngeal prominence, or "Adam's apple").

The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. It participates in these processes by producing thyroid hormones, the principal ones being triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine which can sometimes be referred to as tetraiodothyronine (T4). These hormones regulate the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also produces calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.

Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus.

Even a small decline or increase in the output of these hormones, if sustained over a long period of time, can have profound consequences for health and well being.

Background

Thyroid disorders are common endocrine disorders encountered in the African continent. Environmental and nutritional factors are often implicated in the occurrence of some thyroid disorders that occur in this part of the world. But rather intriguingly, researchers in this area have identified other causes of thyroid problems that may have previously been overlooked.  The section ‘causes’ shows the result of their studies.

The reported prevalence rates of endemic goiter in the African continent range from 1% to 90% depending on the area of study with myxedematous cretinism still a prominent feature of IDD in only a few regions of the continent. The extent of autoimmune thyroid disorders remains unknown because of underdiagnosis and underreporting but the few available studies note a prevalence rate of 1.2% to 9.9% of which Graves diseases is the commonest of these groups of disorders. …..The documented prevalence rates of thyroid CA in the African continent are as follows (papillary: 6.7-72.1%, follicular: 4.9-68%, anaplastic: 5-21.4%, and medullary: 2.6%-13.8%). For the differentiated thyroid CA, there is a changing trend toward the more frequent occurrence of papillary CA compared to follicular CA and this may be attributable to widespread iodization programs......Diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders in the African continent remain suboptimal. Thyroid registries may be helpful to determine the scope of the burden of thyroid disorders since this knowledge may help change policies on the approach to the management of these disorders.  PMID: 21966659

Symptoms

The various names given to aspects of Thyroid disease are as follows:

  •  Hypothyroidism  - is defined as low thyroid function with a decreased production of thyroid hormones. When thyroid function is less than optimal, metabolic processes slow down. The rate of thyroid hormone production is regulated by the pituitary gland, which manufactures another hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). This hormone is responsible for making more thyroid hormones when levels drop too low. Generally, the more severe the hypothyroidism, the higher the level of TSH.  The thyroid gland acts as the body’s thermostat and controls the metabolic rate of the body. As metabolism affects every cell of the body, if the thermostat is malfunctioning (either set too high or too low) it naturally affects all parts of the body.  If cellular metabolism drops too low, widespread dysfunction of the body can occur and conditions such as depression, anxiety, memory impairments, hair loss, weight gain, loss of libido, fatigue and cold hands and feet can ensue.
  • Hyperthyroidism - is defined as high thyroid function with a increased over production of thyroid hormones.  For hyperthyroidism, the most common symptoms are associated with adrenergic stimulation: tachycardiac, palpitations, nervousness, tremour, and increased blood pressure. Clinical manifestations are often related to hypermetabolism, including increased metabolism, excessive thyroid hormone, an increase in oxygen consumption, metabolic changes in protein metabolism, immunologic stimulation of diffuse goiter, and ocular changes (exophthalmos).  Symptoms of the resultant hyperthyroidism are mainly " insomnia, hand tremor, hyperactivity, hair loss, excessive sweating, shaking hands, itching, heat intolerance, weight loss despite increased appetite, diarrhea, frequent defecation, palpitations, muscle weakness, and skin warmth and moistness".
  • Goitre - A goitre or goiter is a swelling of the neck or larynx resulting from enlargement of the thyroid gland (thyromegaly), associated with both hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  • Graves disease - Graves' disease (or Basedow-Graves disease) is classified as an Autoimmune disease, but it is also a Thyroid disease as it most commonly affects the thyroid, frequently causing it to enlarge to twice its size or more (goiter), become overactive, with related hyperthyroid symptoms such as increased heartbeat, muscle weakness, disturbed sleep, and irritability. It can also affect the eyes, causing bulging eyes (exophthalmos). It affects other systems of the body, including the skin, heart, circulation and nervous system.
  • Thyroiditis – or inflammation of the thyroid.  There are two types of thyroiditis where initially hyperthyroidism presents which is followed by a period of hypothyroidism; (the overproduction of T3 and T4 followed by the underproduction of T3 and T4). These are Hashimoto's thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis. 
  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disorder.  At the beginning, the gland may be overactive, and then becomes underactive as the gland is damaged. Some patients may experience "swings" in hormone levels that can be mistaken as severe moodswings, or even being bipolar.  Hashimoto's is more common in females than males, usually appearing after the age of 30, and tends to run in families. Also more common in individuals with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis are type 1 diabetes and celiac disease.  So there is an allergen connection
  • Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.  In effect it is brain damage caused by thyroiditis.

  • Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in some females following the birth of a child. After delivery, the gland becomes inflamed and the condition initially presents with overactivity of the gland followed by underactivity. In some cases, the gland may recover with time and resume its functions. In others it may not.
Clare Balding (38), the sports presenter is
currently battling Thyroid Cancer and has
already had her thyroid gland removed
  •  Cancers, cysts and nodules - thyroid cancer presents as a painless mass in the neck. It is very unusual for thyroid cancers to present with symptoms, unless they have been neglected. One may be able to feel a hard nodule in the neck. Thyroid nodules can also be felt but the majority of these thyroid nodules are benign (non cancerous).  A persistent thyroglossal duct or cyst is the most common clinically significant congenital anomaly of the thyroid gland.   Although cancers are linked to toxins, bacteria and viruses, the nodules and cysts are frequently linked to the presence of parasites

 

  • Cretinism’ - Pregnant women on a diet that is severely deficient of iodine can give birth to infants with thyroid hormone deficiency (congenital hypothyroidism), manifesting in problems of physical growth and development as well as brain development  - a condition referred to as cretinism. In countries where risk of iodine deficiency is possible because for example the soils are depleted of iodine or the country is a long way from the sea and no sources of fish or sea salt are available, newborns are often tested for congenital hypothyroidism as part of newborn screening. Children with congenital hypothyroidism are treated supplementally as the damage to the thyroid is permanent.

Causes 

Nutritional deprivation

One major cause of thyroid problems whether hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism is Nutritional deprivation, including mineral imbalance and vitamin imbalance

  • Iodine imbalance -  Iodine is required to manufacture the thyroid hormones.  Seafoods, iodised salt and sea vegetables – for example kelp, a form of seaweed species called Laminaria are rich sources of iodine, as well as foods grown in iodine rich soil. With today’s intensive farming techniques it is thought that trace minerals including iodine have been depleted and so many foods no longer contain substantial amounts of these trace minerals.
  • Selenium deficiency - Converting thyroxine (T4) into active triiodothyronine (T3) requires the enzyme 5’deiodinase. This enzyme contains selenium, fundamental for a normal thyroid metabolism.  Because of the knock on effects of mineral deficiency in general, scientists have speculated that it is severe selenium deficiency that is the ultimate cause of goitre in those that have enough Iodine.  

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) which top the list of thyroid disorders and remain the commonest cause of thyroid disorders in the African continent is often affected not only by the iodine status in the region but sometimes also by selenium deficiency and thiocyanate toxicity. PMID: 21966659

and

 

The essential trace element selenium (Se) is a central constituent of 50-70 selenoprotein variants encoded by 25 human genes. ….. Thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and protection of the thyroid gland from H2O2 and reactive oxygen species derived therefrom as well as TH activation and inactivation by deiodinase enzymes requires Se. Altered Se status has been associated with benign (goiter and autoimmune thyroid disease) and malignant thyroid maladies and several but not all Se supplementation studies reported on beneficial effects. PMID: 24419053

     
  • Amino acid deficiency -  Amino acids play a major role in supporting thyroid health. L- tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that the body synthesizes from phenylalanine. Amongst its abundance of functions including the formation of the neurotransmitters, tyrosine is a major component of the thyroid hormones. People with depression often have low levels of tyrosine.  The interaction of all the amino acids is covered elsewhere on the site, but very briefly another amino acid that has a role to play because of the chain of interactions is DL-phenylalanine.  DL-phenylalanine is also converted in the body to L-tyrosine
  • Vitamin deficiency and mineral deficiency - L-carnitine is made in the body from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Carnitine plays an important role in the metabolism of energy from fat. In order for carnitine to be utilised fully it requires vitamin C, iron, niacin, B6 and methionine.  Several nutrients are required for the conversion of phenylalanine [see above] to tyrosine; these are vitamin B6, iron, vitamin B12 and vitamin E
  •  Zinc deficiency -  Zinc is another essential mineral for optimising thyroid health. In a study of fourteen healthy people with primarily high or low serum zinc levels, thyroxin levels tended to be lower in those people with lower serum zinc.  By supplementing with zinc in those individuals whose serum was low, thyroxin levels increased.
  •  Copper deficiency - copper is another mineral which plays an important role in the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine. Although copper deficiency is rare if people eat a normal diet, I other words rely on food as the source of minerals, those taking mineral supplements – particularly those with zinc in them or iron can give themselves copper deficiency as zinc interferes with copper absorption.
  •  Manganese deficiency - Manganese is required to transport thyroxin hormone into the cell and activates the enzymes, which increase thyroid function.  A magnesium deficiency seems to alter the peripheral conversion of T4 into T3.
  •  Essential fatty acids imbalance - Essential fatty acids are needed for proper functioning of the thyroid gland and are necessary for hormone production. Essential fatty acids include omega-3 fatty acids (found in fish) and omega-6 fatty acids.

Stress

Stress and toxins can inhibit the enzyme 5’deiodinase’s ability to convert thyroid hormones throughout the body.  There is another effect from stress however.  Stress and extreme emotion induces the Sympathetic nervous system which is fuelled by Adrenaline.  The amino acid tyrosine [see above]  is necessary for the production of adrenaline and noradrenaline. When the body is under stress more of these hormones are required and tyrosine reserves are depleted, leaving the thyroid hormone pathway underfunctioning. Stress also depletes many of the essential nutrients required for thyroid function – the B vitamins, vitamin C, zinc and selenium especially.

Inherited genes

Some children are born with in-built problems, usually due to problems that occurred during gestation.

Oprah Winfrey announced her thyroid problems in
2007. Before she was diagnosed with hypothyroidism,
she struggled with weight gain and felt exhausted
all the time

Intestinal disease

The intestine is where all the absorption of nutrients takes place.  In the intestine there are folds and twists which provide a huge surface area capable of absorbing all the nutrients.  Intestinal disease or damage can result in a deficiency of nutrients, which can cause thyroid disease.

Surgery

Where the thyroid gland is inadvertently damaged in the process of other forms of surgery or where the gland is deliberately surgically removed or altered when it has become diseased.

Toxins

A number of toxins are implicated in thyroid disease, including Nanoparticles [which can cause genetic damage] and a range of Heavy metals.  Both lead and mercury are implicated in thyroid disease, along with amalgam dental fillings, but there are links to iron overdose as well, for example

In parallel with industrial advancements, number of the occupational diseases secondary to chemical exposure is increasing. The chemical agents in the work places affect various organ and tissue systems, leading to chronic diseases. In this study, the cases diagnosed with occupational disease due to exposure to lead were studied and importance of the environmental forensic sciences on this issue was emphasized. A hundred and ninety patients diagnosed with occupational disease related to lead intoxication in Ankara Occupational Diseases Hospital between 01/01/2009 and 31/12/2009 were included in the study. …). In thyroid function test (TFTs) panel, free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were found significantly higher in the patients with lead exposure than in the control group (p=0.01), while Thyrotrophin-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were lower (p<0.001).  PMID:  23084307

 

Musician and singer-songwriter Rod Stewart
was diagnosed with thyroid cancer in 2000.
He had to re-learn how to sing after his
thyroid cancer surgery

Mineral supplements and vitamin supplements

The following paper has a number of interesting findings.  Both Infertilty treatments and Mineral supplements and vitamin supplements are implicated in diabetes and thyroid disease and there is a spill over effect on the baby - the mothers produced brain damaged children.

Craniosynostosis [brain damage] is a relatively common [birth defect].  In the case group, maternal diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease were found in 8 (11.6%) and 6 (8.6%) patients, respectively. The most frequent medication used by mothers (n = 66 or 94%) in the case group during pregnancy were vitamins (including iron supplements, omega 3, folic acid and multivitamins).  A positive family history of craniosynostosis [odds ratio (OR) 19.01 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24-160.7] and using clomiphene citrate for infertility (OR 12.71 and 95% CI 1.42-113.6) were the strongest independent risk factors for craniosynostosis. PMID:  23428561

Pharmaceuticals

Former President George H. W. Bush was diagnosed with
Graves' disease in 1991 and was treated with radioactive
iodine. His wife, former First Lady Barbara Bush, was also
diagnosed with Graves' disease around the same time—
interestingly enough, so was their dog Millie

There is a gradually growing realisation that quite a large number of pharmaceuticals upset the entire balance of the thyroid gland causing both hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism.  Examples include [please note this list is not exhaustive]:

  • Lithium - can cause hyperthyroidism (but most often hypothyroidism) by affecting iodine metabolism of the thyroid itself
  • Malaria treatments interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF. Among them are pyrimethamine used to treat malaria and as an antiviral
  • Proton pump inhibitors inhibit stomach acid secretion, however, the acids help destroy bacteria, parasites etc, as such inhibition increases the risk of pathogens entering the blood stream, see below
  • Auto-immune disease drugs – such as methotrexate, which interferes with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF.  It is also used as a chemotherapy agent
  • Drugs to induce abortions – methothrexate is also used in this context
  •  The sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of 4-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase).are used as antibiotics, diuretics and epilepsy drugs and can also interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF..  Because sulfonamides displace bilirubin from albumin, kernicterus  - brain damage due to excess bilirubin – “ is another important potential side effect of sulfonamide use
  • Diuretics - In general achieve their effects through manipulation of the minerals in the body – the sodium balance in particular – at various stages of processing in the kidneys.  As a consequence they can cause all manner of mineral imbalances - see above

Davina McCall was diagnosed with hypothyroidism
while trying for her daugher Holly
  • Immunosuppressants - which by damaging the immune system's response allows bacteria etc to enter which can disrupt or damage the Intestine and its flora
  • Chemotherapy drugs - which cause zinc imbalance- see above.  A number of drugs also interfere with the biosynthesis of folic acid and THF. Among them are the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors such as trimethoprim and the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of 4-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase).
 

10% used diuretics or laxatives to reduce weight within the trimester preceding the survey. Vitamin E, zinc and iron were the most widespread deficiencies affecting 47%, 44% and 27% of the population, respectively. PMID: 21090277

  •  Anti-histamines – for example “cimetidine is a well-recognized zinc chelator  PMID:10394044
  • Antibiotics - simply because they interfere with the immune system and the natural protection the Intestine provides against invasion by unwanted substances
  • Heart arrhythmia medication – Most arrhythmias are caused by mineral imbalance and nutritional deprivation.  One standard course of treatment by doctors using the symptom based approach, however,  is the pharmaceutical Amiodarone, which is an antiarrhythmic agent used for various types of cardiac dysrhythmias, both ventricular and atrial. “Despite relatively common side-effects, it is used in arrhythmias that are otherwise difficult to treat with medication” - one side-effect is thyroid disease

Rarer causes of thyroid dysfunction such as thyroid tuberculosis and amiodarone related causes are also documented in this review. The onset of new thyroid diseases following amiodarone usage was documented in 27.6% of persons treated for arrhythmia. Reports on thyroid malignancies (CA) in Africa abound and differentiated thyroid malignancies are noted to occur more commonly than the other forms of thyroid CA.  PMID: 21966659

The eHealthme site separates out a number of different symptoms related to thyroid disease, thus the following list of symptoms takes you to the list of pharmaceuticals implicated in each condition.  The lists were derived from Adverse Drug reports submitted to SEDA and the FDA:

In 2016, eHealthme completely reordered their site.  This meant that every link we had provided to their data no longer worked.  The links to eHealthme take you to their site but not the relevant section.  Thus you can use the link, but you will need to search under ‘symptoms’ and then use the section ‘drugs causing symptoms’ to get the information. 

 Bacterial infection

A number of bacteria are implicated in thyroid disease including [as stated above] the bacteria responsible for tuberculosis.  As just one example of the bacteria implicated Yersinia enterocolitica is a species of gram-negative bacterium.  Scientists are beginning to make the link between this bacteria and a whole host of diseases – Graves disease , so called pseudotuberculosis, enteritis/diarrhoea, fever and hyperthermia, so called pseudoappendicitis, liver disease, and spleen disease.  Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.

Parasites and Viral infection

Actress and screenwriter Nia Vardalos, best
known for her role in My Big Fat Greek
Wedding, has Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

Parasites and viruses have a tendency to attack the entire body, as such anyone with parasites or viruses tends to present with a host of diseases. 

The parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects about one-third of the population of developed countries.  It is carried by cats - see being with cats.   It is implicated in numerous diseases.

The following interesting example demonstrates this, these refugees had both viral infections and parasites, mineral deficiency, vitamin deficiency and thyroid disease.

Karen refugees have high rates of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases …Overall prevalence figures were: anaemia 9.2%, microcytosis 19.1%, iron deficiency 13.1%, low vitamin B(12) 1.5%, low folate 1.5%, abnormal thyroid function tests 4.4%, vitamin D<50 nmol/L 33.3%, hypocalcaemia 7.4%, raised alkaline phosphatase 5.2%, abnormal liver transaminases 16.1%, hepatitis B surface antigen positive 9.7%, hepatitis B surface antibody positive 49.5%, isolated hepatitis B core antibody positive 9.0%, hepatitis C positive 1.9%, eosinophilia 14.4%, Schistosoma infection 7%, Strongyloides infection 20.8%, malaria 0.2%, faecal parasites 43.4%. Quantiferon-gold screening was positive in 20.9%. No cases of syphilis or HIV were identified. Serological immunity to vaccine preventable diseases was 87.1% for measles, 95% for mumps and 66.4% for rubella; 56.9% of those tested had seroimmunity to all three.   PMID:  22693599

Fungal infection

Once thought rare, it is clear that fungal infection is a cause often overlooked in the pathology of the disease, for example:

…fungal infection of the thyroid is an extremely rare condition even more so in an immunocompetent patient. Fungal infections of the thyroid usually occur in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies, recipients of bone marrow and solid organ allografts on immunosuppression, and patients with AIDS. A 65-year-old male presented with swelling in the front of the neck for 2 years. Examination revealed a 4 × 4 cm non-tender, firm swelling of the right lobe of the thyroid. The patient was taken up for a subtotal thyroidectomy. Intra-operatively, an abscess cavity with pus was found in the right lobe of the thyroid. Histopathology revealed features of fungal abscess and staining demonstrated fungal hyphae characteristic of Aspergillus ssp. PMID:  24159398

Vaccines

Gloria Hunniford discovered she had
hypothyroidism

The link between vaccines and thyroid disease has already been made " …Oral vaccination with WC/rBS cholera vaccine affects the intestinal flora in human, and the mechanism as well as the implications needs to be further explored.  PMID: 14965834"

But the principal reason that vaccines affect the thryoid is that viruses do.  Although there is a contributory element from the vaccines that have Thiomersal and hence mercury in them, the main problem is that some vaccines contain a live virus. 

Where a vaccine uses a live virus [not all do], we are in effect giving a person the virus in the hope their immune system builds up immunity.  But, many viruses are not destroyed by the immune system, merely subdued.  When the immune system is compromised, the virus will travel round the body to cause subsequent bouts of illness.    Thus any vaccine which uses a live virus has the potential to make us infertile, depending, of course, on the virus [see above].  A different example of viruses implicated

Thirty patients with thyroid nodules who underwent surgery for thyroid disease within a 3-year period were enrolled. Both nodular and adjacent normal thyroid tissue was surgically excised from each patient. Viral gene sequences of BKV (VP1), EBV (LMP1, EBNA2 and EBER1) and HPV were amplified by PCR. …VP1 gene sequences were detected in 60% (18/30) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia lesions and in 43.3% (13/30) of adjacent thyroid tissue specimens. Fifteen of thirty (50%) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia samples revealed LMP1 sequences compared with 46.7% (14/30) of corresponding normal thyroid tissues. EBNA2 gene sequences were detected in 90% (27/30) of thyroid cancer or multinodular hyperplasia samples, compared with 90% (27/30) of adjacent normal thyroid tissue specimens. All samples were negative for EBER1 sequences, while HPV DNA was not detected in either nodular or normal thyroid tissue.  PMID:  25262702

The BK virus is a member of the polyomavirus family.  EBV is the Epstein Barr virusHPV is the human papilloma virus.  The current vaccines for HPV do not contain a live virus.  An EBV vaccine is in development.  Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk through the use of HeLa cells and first tested in 1952. It consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated - live -  poliovirus.  It was licensed in 1962.

The influenza vaccines contain live viruses:

A 17-year-old previously healthy female developed an influenza-like syndrome that was accompanied by palpitations, thyroid enlargement, and increased C-reactive protein. Polymerase chain reaction assay confirmed the diagnosis of H1N1 virus infection. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone was suppressed to zero while the levels of free thyroxine and triiodothyronine were increased.  PMID: 25125962

 Radiation


 

Melissa Porter (35) was diagnosed with

hypothyroidism at the age of 26. She is a patron of

the British Thyroid Foundation

All radiation whether 'cosmic' or electromagnetic impacts our bodies and depending on its frequency it resonates different parts of us.  The reason that nuclear radiation is so dangerous is that it impacts cells, but what we appear to have overlooked is that all radiation impacts some part of us.

Every aggregate in our bodies - organs, cells, the body itself, has natural ‘resonance’.  Resonance is a substance’s natural tendency to oscillate – vibrate – at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies, known as the thing’s resonant frequency.

And long term exposure at the resonating frequency, or short term high intensity exposure to the resonating frequency of the thyroid gland will cause cell death.

 

References and further reading

  • Schmidt M, D.C., CNS; Bland J, PhD. Thyroid Gland as Sentinel: Interface between internal and external environment. Alt Therapies January 1997 vol.3.No.1.
  • Budd. M. Mild Hypothyroidism: the missed diagnosis. Int. Journal of Alt Comp Medicine June 1998.
  • Cass R., PhD. Axillary temperature test. The Physicians Clinical Reference Manual 7th Anniversary edition 1994.
  • Arthur J.R; Beckett G.J. Thyroid function. Br Med Bull, 1999. 55(3): 658-68.
  • Harrower; An Endocrine Handbook, The Harrower Laboratory, INC, Glendale, CA. 1939
  • Lee. Protomorphology: The Principles of Cell Auto-Regulation 1966.
  • Chiaroni P; Azorin J.M; Bovier P, et al. A multivariate analysis of red blood cell membrane transports and plasma levels of L-tyrosine and L-tryptophan in depressed patients before treatment and after clinical improvement. Neuropsychobiol 1990;1-7.
  • Hartoma T.R; Sotaniemi E.A; Maattanen J. Effect of zinc on some biochemical indices of metabolism. Nutr Metab 1979:23: 294-300.
  • Thilly C.H; Swennen B; Bourdoux P, et al. The epidemiology of iodine- deficiency disorders in relation to goitrogenic factors and thyroid stimulating hormone regulation. Am J Clin Nut 1993; 57(2 Suppl): 267S-70S.
  • Mahoney C.P; Alster F.A; Carew L.B. Growth, thyroid function, and serum macromineral levels in magnesium-deficient chicks. Poult Sci, 1992. 71 (10): 1669-79.
  • Barnes B.O, Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness. 1976
  • Budd Martin, Why am I so Tired? Thorsons 2000.
  • Epidemiology of thyroid diseases in Africa.  Ogbera AO, Kuku SF.  Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • J Forensic Leg Med. 2012 Nov;19(8):452-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2012.04.001. Epub 2012 May 1.  Analysis of the hematological and biochemical parameters related to lead intoxication.  Yılmaz H, Keten A, Karacaoğlu E, Tutkun E, Akçan R.

Observations

All the following people had or have Thyroid disease, more specifically Graves disease:

  • George H. W. Bush, U.S. president, developed new atrial fibrillation and was diagnosed in 1991 with hyperthyroidism due to the disease and treated with radioactive iodine. The president's wife Barbara Bush also developed the disease about the same time, which in her case produced severe infiltrative exopthalmos
  • Missy Elliott, American musician
  • Marty Feldman, British comedian]
  • Sia Furler, Australian singer
  • Heino, German musician
  • Ayaka Iida, Japanese singer
  • Barbara Leigh, an American former actress and fashion model, now spokeswoman for the National Graves' Disease Foundation
  • Christina Rossetti (1830-1894) poet, author
  • Dame Maggie Smith, English actress

 

Related observations