Characterization and biological activity of the main flavonoids from Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris subspecies cycla)
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A description of the experience
Phytomedicine. 2007 Feb;14(2-3):216-21. Epub 2006 May 15. Characterization and biological activity of the main flavonoids from Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris subspecies cycla). Ninfali P1, Bacchiocca M, Antonelli A, Biagiotti E, Di Gioacchino AM, Piccoli G, Stocchi V, Brandi G. 1Istituto di Chimica Biologica G. Fornaini, Università degli Studi Carlo Bo, Urbino (PU), Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
The molecular components of a phenolic fraction (P2), obtained from liquid chromatography of a Swiss Chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. cycla) extract, were identified using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.
The primary P2 components were: vitexin-2''O-rhamnoside, its demethylated form 2''-xylosylvitexin, isorhamnetin 3-gentiobioside, and rutin. P2 "in toto" and the single components were characterized for antioxidant capacity, antimitotic activity on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and for toxicity to human lymphocytes and macrophages.
P2 inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation (IC(50) value = 9 microg/ml) without inducing apoptosis, showed no toxicity to human lymphocytes and slight toxicity to macrophages. Vitexin-2''O-rhamnoside strongly inhibited DNA synthesis in MCF-7 cells, whereas 2''-xylosylvitexin and isorhamnetin 3-gentiobioside were activators; combinations of activators and inhibitors maintained the over-all inhibitory effect.