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Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity - 041 Table 3



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Nutrients. 2015 Jan; 7(1): 552–571.  Published online 2014 Jan 14. doi:  10.3390/nu7010552 PMCID: PMC4303853  Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity - Qixiao Zhai,1 Arjan Narbad,2 and Wei Chen1,3,*

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Table 3

Protective mechanisms of phytochemicals against Cd and Pb toxicity and their food sources.

PhytochemicalToxic MetalProtective MechanismsRef.Food Sources
Quercetin Cd Quercetin induces eNOS, iNOS, COX-2 and MT expression. [90,91] Onion, tomato, capers and radish
  Pb Quercetin modulates the MAPKs and NF-κB signalling pathway and forms excretable complex with Pb. [92,93,94]  
Catechin Cd Catechin inhibits Cd absorption and normalises bone metabolic disorders through the bone mineral density, bone mineral content and bone calcium content. [95] Tea, cocoa, peach and berries.
  Pb Catechin protects hepatic cell membrane fluidity, increases cell viability and modulates oxidative stress. [96]  
Anthocyanin Cd Anthocyanin protects against Cd-induced oxidative stress. [97] Cherry, grape and berries.
  Pb Anthocyanin appears to effectively diminish oxidative stress. [98,99]  
Curcumin Cd Curcumin protects against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation. [100,101] Turmeric
  Pb Curcumin binds Pb to form an excretable complex, reducing neurotoxicity. [102]  
Naringenin Cd Naringenin quenches free radicals, recovers antioxidant enzyme activity and chelates Cd. [103] Orange, grapefruit and tomato
γ-Oryzanol Cd γ-Oryzanol reduces the testicular Cd concentration, improves ALAD activity and prevents lipid peroxidation. [104] Rice
Puerarin Pb Puerarin modulates the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway, reduces reactive oxygen species and protects against DNA damage and apoptosis. [105,106] Pueraria

ALAD, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase; Akt, protein kinase B; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; eNOS, endothelial nitric oxide synthase; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; MAPKs, mitogen-activated protein kinases; MT, metallothionein; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B; PI3K, phosphoinositide-3-kinase.


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