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Bone and skeletal disease

Category: Illness or disabilities

Type

Involuntary

Introduction and description

 

Kholmogory bone carving from Russia

The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletós "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

There are two different skeletal types: the exoskeleton, which is the stable outer shell of an organism, and the endoskeleton, which forms the support structure inside the body.  Skeletons are made up of bones.

Although there are a number of problems that can occur with bones, Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a common form of joint disorder that involves inflammation in one or more joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis. Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and septic arthritis, which is caused by joint infection.

Symptoms

Wikipedia
The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain. Pain is often constant, and may be localized to the joint affected. The pain from arthritis is due to inflammation that occurs around the joint, damage to the joint from disease, daily wear and tear of joint, muscle strains caused by forceful movements against stiff painful joints and fatigue.

and pain is usually the symptom from other forms of skeletal and joint disease too. 

Example diseases of the bones and skeleton

 

Some of the illnesses and diseases of the bones and skeleton include the following, please note that this is not a complete list.  The list does provide enough detail to show a pattern of emerging evidence on the causes of the various diseases:

  • Osteoporosis - a progressive bone disease that is characterised by a decrease in bone mass and density which can lead to an increased risk of fracture.  The section itself provides details on possible causes
  • Osteopenia is a condition in which bone mineral density is lower than normal. It is considered by many doctors to be a precursor to osteoporosis. However, not every person diagnosed with osteopenia will develop osteoporosis.  Osteopenia is a common effect of coeliac disease, even among patients who are otherwise asymptotic.  One major cause is estrogen imbalance, which itself has numerous causes, please follow the link.
  • Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate levels of available minerals and vitamins - principally phosphate, calcium and Vitamin D.
  • Rickets -  Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term "osteomalacia" is often restricted to the adult form of the disease. Signs and symptoms can include diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS, from Greek ankylos, fused; spondylos, vertebrae; -itis, inflammation), previously known as Bechterew's disease (or syndrome) and Marie-Strümpell disease, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures. AS is a form of spondyloarthritis, a chronic, inflammatory arthritis.  It mainly affects joints in the spine and the sacroiliac joint in the pelvis, and can cause eventual fusion of the spine.  Klebsiella bacteria are found in high levels in the faeces of AS patients. A theory suggests the presence of the bacteria may be a cause of the disease.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis -  results in chronic, systemic inflammation of many tissues and organs, but principally joints. It is a disabling and extremely painful condition, which can lead to substantial loss of functioning and mobility.  It is not a uniquely bone based disease. It not only attacks the joints, but can also produce inflammation in the lungs, the membrane around the heart (pericardium), the membranes of the lung (pleura), and white of the eye (sclera), and also nodular lesions, most common in subcutaneous tissue.  Various pathogens are implicated.
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or osteoarthrosis, is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.  Wear and tear.  The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other.  Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected.
  •  
    Reactive arthritis  develops in response to an infection in another part of the body. In effect, the joint problems and pain are a consequence of having become infected by a pathogen.  Although bacteria are often responsible for the original illness, there is increasing evidence that the subsequent problems - of which reactive arthritis may be only one - are caused by the bacteriophages in the bacteria.  Phages are viruses, often very very small, and undetectable by anything other than an electron microsope, as such identifying which phage is causing the arthritis is very difficult.  It is easier if the bacteria has been identified.  Both Shigella infection and Streptococcus infection can result in reactive arthritis.
  • Psoriatic arthritis (also arthritis psoriatica, arthropathic psoriasis or psoriatic arthropathy) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that will develop in up to 30 percent of people who have the chronic skin condition psoriasis.  It attacks the joints, causes pain and swelling, and is sometimes accompanied by changes to the nails, such as pitting or separation from the nail bed.  Along with the above noted pain and inflammation, there is extreme exhaustion that does not go away with adequate rest. The exhaustion may last for days or weeks without abatement. Psoriatic arthritis may remain mild, or may progress to more destructive joint disease. Periods of active disease, or flares, will typically alternate with periods of remission.  The same pathogen causing the psoriasis has usually caused the arthritis.  All that is happening is that it is spreading. 
  • Tubercular arthritis - Tuberculosis is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body.  In 15–20% of active cases, the infection spreads outside the lungs, causing other kinds of TB. These are collectively denoted as "extrapulmonary tuberculosis".  Notable extrapulmonary infection sites include the pleura, the central nervous system, the lymphatic system, the genitourinary system, and the bones and joints.  It is then called Tubercular arthritis and if it affects the spine is known as Potts disease.  When it spreads to the bones, it is also known as "osseous tuberculosis".
  • Osteomyelitis or OM -  is infection and inflammation of the bone or bone marrow. It can be usefully subclassified on the basis of the causative organism - pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria and the route, duration and anatomic location of the infection.  For example, osteomyelitis of the jaws is different in several respects from osteomyelitis present in a long bone. Vertebral osteomyelitis is another possible presentation.  The symptoms are the same as in all the other diseases - pain and inflammation.  The cause is thought to be known - bacteria - S. aureus, Enterobacter species,  group A and B Streptococcus species, Salmonella species and Haemophilus influenzae. Although, the complications of bacteriophages may add new ideas to this picture.
  • Osteitis fibrosa cystica  -  is a skeletal disorder caused by hyperparathyroidism, which is a surplus of parathyroid hormone from over-active parathyroid glands. This surplus stimulates the activity of osteoclasts, cells that break down bone, in a process known as osteoclastic bone resorption.  Hyperparathyroidism is itself caused by pathogens or other external factors.
  •  
     Paget's disease - also termed osteitis deformans is a chronic disorder that can result in enlarged and misshapen bones. Paget's is characterised by the excessive breakdown and formation of bone, followed by disorganized bone remodeling. This causes affected bone to weaken, resulting in pain, misshapen bones, fractures and arthritis in the joints near the affected bones. Rarely, it can develop into a primary bone cancer known as Paget's sarcoma. Often Paget's disease is localized to only a few bones in the body.  Overall, the most common symptom is bone pain. Loss of hearing in one or both ears may occur when Paget's disease affects the skull and the bone that surrounds the inner ear.  Paget's disease is thought to be caused by a slow virus infection.  Work is still ongoing as to which one or ones but candidates include the paramyxoviridae, respiratory syncytial virus, canine distemper virus, and the measles virus. These are latent viruses.
  • An osteoma (plural: "osteomata") is a new piece of bone usually growing on another piece of bone, typically the skull. It is a form of benign tumor or cyst caused by a pathogen.   Larger craniofacial osteomata may cause facial pain, headache, and infection due to obstructed nasofrontal ducts.
  • Osteonecrosis or Avascular necrosis  is cellular death of bone due to interruption of the blood supply. Without blood, the bone tissue dies and the bone collapses.  Thus it is, strictly speaking, a symptom of blood circulatory diseaseOsteochondritis dissecans (OCD or OD) another joint disorder in which cracks form in the articular cartilage and the underlying subchondral bone, is also caused by blood deprivation in the subchondral bone. This loss of blood flow causes the subchondral bone to die in a process called avascular necrosis.
  • Giant-cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB)  - is a relatively uncommon tumor of the bone. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells (osteoclast-like cells). Malignancy in giant cell tumor is uncommon and occurs in approximately 2% of all cases. However, if malignant degeneration does occur it is likely to metastasize to the lungs.  Some of the research on this has indicated that the underlying cause is at the level of DNA and RNA

    MicroRNA molecules have a variety of roles in cellular development and proliferation processes, including normal osteogenesis. These effects are exerted through post-translational inhibition of target genes. Altered miRNA expression has been demonstrated in several cancers, both in the tumor tissue and in the peripheral circulation.  PMID:  26659003

    From this there is the hypothesis that the two possible agents are nanoparticles, which are known causative agents in doing DNA damage and bacteriophage

Causes

I think the pattern from the above entries should be clear.  The cause is generally a pathogen, but more than one type of pathogen is implicated, even in the same disease.  If pathogens are not the cause then nutritional deprivation, wear and tear but also physical hurt - fractures of various sorts may be to blame.

There is an alarmingly large number of diseases related to bones and the skeleton that are simply put down to 'mutated genes'.  We have an entry for inherited genes and it shows that dismissing illnesses on this basis is not helpful.  It places the 'blame' on the parents and thus avoids any further investigations as to what caused the mutation.  As will be apparent, the cause is pathogen related and very often the pathogen is man made.

Bacterial infection

 One of the problems that has dogged this area, is the apparent wish by the medical community to home in on one cause at the exclusion of others.  As in all the diseases on this site, it is apparent that there are many many pathogens that can produce the same symptoms - certainly at the very broad brush level at which most doctors work during diagnosis.  As we saw above a host of bacteria are implicated - Klebsiella bacteria, both Shigella infection and Streptococcus infection; various strains of mycobacteria, for example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; S. aureus, Enterobacter species,  Salmonella species and Haemophilus influenzae. 

 In some cases it may not be the bacteria causing the problem, but the bacteriophage they are harbouring that is the cause.

Both ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and Crohn's disease (CD) are chronic and potentially disabling interrelated conditions, which have been included under the group of spondyloarthropathies. The results of a large number of studies support the idea that an enteropathic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is the most likely triggering factor involved in the initiation and development of these diseases  PMID:  23781254

Toxins including nanoparticles 

 

For example from  Smoke inhalation [including smoking] results in smoke particles that, being carbon based and acidic, attack the joints.  Nanoparticles may also attack the joints.  A number of cancers of the bone and tumours are being linked with nanoparticles

....DNA damage occurs chemically or physically by nanomaterials. Chemical and physical damage are associated with point mutation by free radicals and double strand brake, respectively. The failure of DNA repair and accumulation of mutations might occur when inflammation is prolonged, and finally normal cells could become malignant. These free radicals can not only damage cells but also induce signaling molecules containing immunoreaction. Nanoparticles and asbestos also induce the production of free radicals. .... Taken together,... a variety of diseases [may be] induced by nanomaterials. PMID: 25097864

note that nanoparticles are present in polluted air, but are also being released into our environment at an alarming rate by the cosmetics industry [sun screens, skin lotions, face powders, lipsticks] and the pharmaceutical industry.

Aluminium poisoning

Heavy metals in general cause problems as we shall see, but aluminium - whether it comes from pots and pans or vaccines [in the adjuvant] are a major source of bone disease.  The following example ties in with the next entry.

Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. PMID:  26341598

Hip replacements and other joint replacements

Osteolysis is an active resorption of bone matrix by osteoclasts during the natural formation of healthy bones. It is a common problem experienced by people who have artificial joint replacements such as total hip replacements, total knee replacements and total shoulder replacements.  There are several biological mechanisms which may lead to osteolysis. In total hip replacement, the generally accepted explanation for osteolysis involves wear particles (worn off the contact surface of the artificial ball and socket joint). As the body attempts to clean up these wear particles (typically consisting of plastic or metal), it ends up having to clean up living bone tissue 'infected' by the wear particles as well. Osteolysis has been reported to occur as early as 12 months after implantation and is usually progressive.

Fungal infection

Inuit bone carving..........

 Fungal infections can also cause arthritis.  It may be worth adding that it can also be the cause of arthritis in animals, particularly horses

A 37 year old man developed transient fungemia caused by Candida zeylanoides following a kidney and pancreas transplant. For the next seven months the patient had signs and symptoms of right knee arthritis. Candida zeylanoides was finally identified as the aetiological agent. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin B was successful. PMID:  3326745

There is one clear pattern that emerges with fungal infection and that is that it is only likely to be caused if the immune system is not working:

We report a case of arthritis due to Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata in two different joints at different times in the same patient. The first episode of arthritis was situated in the right ankle and lasted more than 1 year before the patient agreed to the proposed treatment. Therapy with intravenous amphotericin B and oral fluconazole failed. A cure was achieved with weekly intra-articular administration of amphotericin B, which was continued for more than 20 weeks and combined with oral itraconazole. Several weeks later the patient developed Candida glabrata arthritis of the left knee while still taking itraconazole. Immediately, intravenous amphotericin B therapy was started and was successful. Because there were no previous invasive point manipulations or trauma, the infections were considered to be haematogenously disseminated. Chronic corticosteroid and repeated antibiotic therapy for infectious exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and alcohol abuse are the presumed risk factors in this otherwise immunocompetent patient.  PMID: 10524556

Viral infection

 There are two sorts of viruses implicated in causing bone diseases in general - the obvious known named and detectable viruses and bacteriophage.  A bacteriophage  is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium.  The latter being extremely small act as both virus and nanoparticle meaning their effects are particularly unpleasant.  They are extremely difficult to identify, extremely dificult to eradicate and may cause genetic mutations - just like nanoparticles.

Every latent virus – that is one capable of latency - is implicated in arthritis and bone disease.  It is not a case of either/or any one could be a cause.  Virus latency is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell, waiting for the immune system to be compromised by stress, weariness, nutritional deprivation and immunosuppresants and antihistamines.  Once the immune system has been compromised the virus re-emerges and continues reproducing and travelling around the body.  These viruses are capable of  staying within the host indefinitely.  Furthermore they seem to have a liking for the lymph system, the blood and the joints.  The first two because they provide a superhighway in which to spread and the last because it is a safe hiidng place.

Arthritis complicating the common viral infections--mumps, coxsackievirus, and adenovirus--can be enigmatic. Mumps arthritis is often difficult to identify, especially when parotitis is mild, because the arthritic syndrome generally follows complete clearing of salivary adenitis by one to two weeks. Migratory polyarthritis is common and may run a protracted course, but only supportive care is generally needed. Arthritis associated with coxsackievirus or adenovirus infection may be particularly perplexing, as the dominant syndrome may be a classic Still's variety of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The polyarthritis may be persistent and/or recurrent, despite administration of potent antiinflammatory agents.  PMID:  6248840

or maybe because of 'potent antiinflammatory agents'. As we saw above, other viruses include the paramyxoviridae, respiratory syncytial virus, canine distemper virus, and the measles virus.  The family of Herpes viruses are implicated.  And there are many many more .........

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries.
The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years.
CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. PMID:  26611396

Aedes albopictus is also known as the (Asian) tiger mosquito or 'forest mosquito'.  It is a mosquito native to the tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia; however, in the past couple of decades this species has invaded many countries throughout the world through the transport of goods and increasing international travel.  Boswellia serrata is frankincense.  Curcumin is in turmeric.

Surgery and physical trauma

 

 

All sorts of fractures and breakages may be caused by physical hurt of some kind.  A fracture is the separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of physical stress. Contact sports such as rugby cause lots of breakages, as do the more exciting of sports such as motor bike racing.   But there may be more unpleasant causes such as  flaggellation, physical abuse and beating, car accidents, falls, wounding, torture, war and so on.  There are other forms of physical trauma that can also cause bone damage, for example:

  • Bone spurs (Osteophytes) - are bony projections that form along joint margins.  These can be caused by pressure and abnormal wear on that area of the bone, for example, badly fitting shoes can cause osteophytes. 
  • A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks. Despite the name fracture, in the majority of cases the bone is broken and hard to find in x-rays. This is owing in large part to the thick fibrous periosteum of immature bone. A person's bones become harder (calcified) and more brittle with age and the periosteum becomes thinner and less restrictive. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft.

 Green stick fractures can be caused by very innocent actions, picking a very young child up by their hands and not lifting them up bodily, or swinging them by their hands or legs as part of games.

Pharmaceuticals

 A considerable number of pharmaceuticals are implicated in causing bone and skeletal diseases, of which more in a moment, however, it is worth examining the role antibiotics and their unwise use has played in adding to the burden. 

The intestine is the only gate for the entry of Ca to the body in humans and mammals. The entrance of Ca occurs via paracellular and intracellular pathways. All steps of the latter pathway are regulated by calcitriol and by other hormones. Dietary and pharmacological compounds also modulate the intestinal Ca absorption process………………Ca intakes are below the requirements recommended by health professionals in most countries, triggering important health problems. Chronic low Ca intake has been related to illness conditions such as osteoporosis, hypertension, renal lithiasis and incidences of human cancer.  PMID:  26466525

in effect we need a healthy intestine to be able to absorb calcium and the other minerals:

The healthy human intestine is colonized by as many as 1014 bacteria belonging to more than 500 different species forming a microbial ecosystem of unsurpassed diversity, termed the microbiota. The microbiota's various bacterial members engage in a physiological network of cooperation and competition within several layers of complexity. Within the last 10 years, technological progress in the field of next-generation sequencing technologies has tremendously advanced our understanding of the wide variety of physiological and pathological processes that are influenced by the commensal microbiota……………. A general feature of a normal, healthy gut microbiota can generate conditions in the gut that disfavor colonization of enteric pathogens. This is termed colonization-resistance (CR). Upon disturbance of the microbiota, CR can be transiently disrupted, and pathogens can gain the opportunity to grow to high levels. This disruption can be caused by exposure to antibiotics ……. PMID:  26185088

so antibiotics deliver us a double whammy.  They disrupt the natural protective system we have in the intestine and thus let in pathogens - the pathogens mentionned in the other sections - and also prevent proper absorption of nutrients that may help repair the damage or help the immune system.

The eHealthme site collects the Adverse Drug reports submitted by doctors to the FDA and SEDA in the USA.  It then summarises them for ease of use.  We originally provided a direct link to various Bone and skeletal diseases listed on this site and the pharmaceuticals that can cause them, but the eHealthme website developers frequently reorganise the site and thus break the links.  Thus in order to find out which pharmaceuticals are implicated in Bone and skeletal disease

  • Follow the LINK to the eHealthme website
  • Using the ‘All conditions’ index find the appropriate entry
  • Now scroll down until you get to the section marked ‘Drugs that could cause

The list shows you all the drugs implicated in CAUSING various types of Bone and skeletal disease as well as the number of people who have made a complaint to their doctor and had their case reported by him.  Note that it is up to the doctor whether he reports or not.  As of 2016, the categories that the eHealthme site had for Bone diseases included the following, they had no overall main category, the figures show the number of drugs implicated by class of disease:

  • Bone-carving-made-by-craftsmen-from-Kholmogory-Russia
    Osteopenia - about 1,250 drugs
  • Osteomalacia - about 250 drugs
  • Ankylosing spondilitis - about 550 drugs
  • Osteoporosis - about 1,600 drugs
  • Rheumatoid arthritis - about 1200 drugs
  • Osteoarthritis - about 1,750 drugs implicated, meaning this is not caused by wear and tear it is entirely drug related
  • Reactive arthritis - as expected no drugs here because it is by definition arthritis following a bacterial or viral complaint.
  • Psoriatic arthritis - just 7 drugs here including vitamin D supplements and a number of immunosuppressants
  • Tubercular arthritis - covered under the general heading of bacterial arthritis
  • Arthritis - fungal
  • Arthritis - viral
  • Osteomyelitis about 1,400 drugs
  • Paget's disease

 As one would expect, the normal culprits figure quite prominently in these lists - statins, immunosuppressants, and anti-histamines.   There are some interesting additional pharmaceuticals - like the acne treatments, which also seem to appear quite regularly as causative agents. And the anti-depressants.

Nutritional deprivation

 Metabolic bone disease is an umbrella term, which refers to abnormalities of bones caused by nutritional deprivation.  Since bone requires minerals, most commonly these disorders are caused by abnormalities of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, but they can also be caused by deficiencies, for example, of vitamin D.  Deprivation or imbalance can lead to dramatic clinical disorders, but some are reversible once the underlying defect has been identified – the cause.

As we saw above Osteomalacia is but one of the diseases in this category as is rickets.

Heavy metals

Heavy metals in general are a cause of a host of illnesses and diseases, lead, mercury, aluminium [as above], nickel and cadmium are all implicated in arthritis.  For example

Heavy metal pollution in farm soils is a problem in some parts of Taiwan. …. the aim of this study was to investigate whether pollution in farm soils is associated with worsened RA.   Clinical parameters from 122 RA patients were collected from a medical center in central Taiwan. Levels of heavy metals in the blood were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Levels of [metals] in farm soils were retrieved from a national survey. These data were analyzed to find the factors related to RA disease activities.
RA patients living where farm soils contained high levels of copper had increased white blood cell counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and disease activity score 28, compared with patients living where copper levels were low. Among the nine types of heavy metal measured in the study, blood levels of copper and nickel correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate.  PMID:  26610397

Parasites

Last but not least

Tuberculous, fungal, and parasitic infections infect millions of people throughout the world. While other problems usually overshadow their rheumatologic manifestations, nearly all these infections can involve bone or joints and may on occasion present with rheumatologic symptoms. The classic model of these diseases presenting as chronic monoarticular arthritis is still generally valid but other presentations, such as tenosynovitis with atypical mycobacterial infections, erythema nodosum with leprosy, coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis, and reactive arthritis with schistosomiasis and helminthic infections, are now well established.   PMID: 1911057

 

References and further reading

  • Nutr Res Rev. 2015 Dec;28(2):83-99. Epub 2015 Oct 15.  Dietary and pharmacological compounds altering intestinal calcium absorption in humans and animals.  Areco V1, Rivoira MA1, Rodriguez V1, Marchionatti AM1, Carpentieri A2, Tolosa de Talamoni N1.
    • 11Laboratorio 'Dr. Cañas',Cátedra de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas,INICSA (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba),Córdoba,Argentina.
    • 22Cátedra de Química Biológica, Facultad de Odontología,INICSA (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba),Córdoba,Argentina
  •  J Inorg Biochem. 2015 Nov;152:167-173. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.08.019. Epub 2015 Aug 28.  Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.  Zioła-Frankowska A1, Dąbrowski M2, Kubaszewski Ł3, Rogala P2, Frankowski M4.
  • Microbiol Spectr. 2015 Jun;3(3). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.MBP-0008-2014.  The Roles of Inflammation, Nutrient Availability and the Commensal Microbiota in Enteric Pathogen Infection.  Stecher B.
  • Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Dec;6(6):668-9. Transient fungemia and Candida arthritis due to Candida zeylanoides.  Bisbe J1, Vilardell J, Valls M, Moreno A, Brancos M, Andreu J.  1Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Clinico Provincial, Barcelona, Spain

 

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