Introduction and description
Chelation therapy is the administration of chelating agents principally by injection or by mouth, to remove toxins from the body.
When chelation agents are applied to the planet it is called bioremediation.
As both are being described here - chelation therapy of people and our fellow creatures and bioremediation of the planet, we have used the general term chelation agents or in other words 'using chelations agents to chelate'!
It has a long history of use in clinical toxicology, but with the ever increasing use of toxins in industry and farming, the use of toxins in food processing and the cumulative effect of toxins from mining and fossil fuel burning, it has become not only a hot topic, but one of the most important topics on the site.
Types of chelating agent
Some of the following agents are relatively well established, but some are almost completely new and still undergoing proving, the problem is always that the more one group of scientists release a new batch of toxins, another batch of scientists has to beaver away trying to find ways of mitigating the damage they have caused:
- Smoke chelation agents act on the smoke particles from cigarettes and on the particles from diesel fumes and other smoke emissions from power stations, factories and vehicles. They are thus largely [but not exclusively] carbon chelators
- Chemical warfare agents or organophosphate pesticide chelating agents - act to try to counteract the effects of these related substances. CWAs and pesticides are both indirect acting ACh receptor agonists, that work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The resulting accumulation of acetylcholine causes continuous stimulation of the muscles, glands, and central nervous system. Both increase the action of acetylcholine by delaying its degradation; it is pot luck whether they are being used as nerve agents (Sarin and VX nerve gas) or pesticides.
- Nanoparticle chelating agents - are only just beginning to be conceptualised. The need is urgent as the effects are devastating. Nanoparticles are extremely small particles of chemicals. There is considerable concern in the environmental community of the effects of these particles on both health and the environment with papers on Pubmed linking them to lung cancer, brain damage, COPD, eye problems and so on. The environmental impact has the potential to be catastrophic as there appears to be proof that nanoparticles affect marine life as well as land based animals. To put this less scientifically nanoparticles - particularly those based on metals have the potential to wipe out marine life.
- Other miscellaneous chelating agents -include substances to counteract chemicals like
From EDTA and Chelation Therapy: History and Mechanisms of Action, an Update Garry F. Gordon, MD, DO, MD(H)
...... In the past 50 years, it is estimated that over one million patients have received intravenous chelation therapy with one widely used chelator, EDTA. Unfortunately, I believe we may have still failed to discover the primary mechanism(s) of action responsible for the frequently dramatic clinical improvements seen in numerous apparently unrelated conditions treated with EDTA and/or other chelators, unless it is simply that the binding and/or removal of toxic metals permits improved metabolic functioning in a variety of conditions. With science documenting the adverse effects of commonly encountered low levels of heavy metals on health, it is possible that chelation therapy is being vastly underutilized in standard medicine and that combinations of new and existing Chelating agents may need to be employed to deal with the broader spectrum of toxins now being identified as contributors to many if not most diseases...
There are some very very heavy duty chemicals that can be used, under doctor supervision and with extremely careful control, that are used to help people who have extremely severe poisoning , examples include:
- EDTA - Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is used intravenously and is approved for use in lead poisoning.
- DMSA - Dimercaptosuccinic acid has been recommended for the treatment of lead, antimony, mercury, and arsenic. There is doubt being cast in some scientific circles about the efficacy of DMSA and whether within cell toxins are actually chelated. More data is needed here, as none of the chemicals in this group are 'safe' all have inherent risks.
- DMPS - 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid acute has been proven largely on mercury poisoning
- Deferoxamine - used for iron poisoning
- BAL - is used medically in treatment of arsenic, mercury, gold, lead, antimony, and other toxic metal poisoning
Heavy duty Chelation therapy should only be used used as a treatment for severe mercury, iron (including in cases of thalassemia), arsenic, lead, uranium, plutonium and other forms of very toxic metal poisoning that require almost emergency treatment.
In effect, if the person is in no immediate danger, other - often food based - options may be less risky. The chelating agent may be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or orally, depending on the agent and the type of poisoning.
In conditions caused by heavy metal poisoning, it may only halt the process of the disease and damage being done, it cannot of itself cure the person. For example in cases of multiple sclerosis caused by heavy metal poisoning, there are case studies on Pubmed that show it can halt the disease, but whether the body then manages to recover depends on the healing processes of the body itself.
Medical evidence does not support the effectiveness of [this type] of chelation therapy for any other purpose than the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers over-the-counter (OTC) chelation products to be "unapproved", and thus it is a violation of U.S. federal law to make unproven claims about them.
Bran - Bran contains phytate and phytate can be used as a chelating agent in cases of overdose of zinc or iron, calcium and magnesium.
Even if used as a chelating agent, there must be careful monitoring of the other minerals and also monitoring of niacin.
Phytate also acts as an acid, chelating the vitamin niacin, the deficiency of which is known as pellagra.
Natural agents in food
Natural chelating agents are generally polyphenols. Not all polyphenols are chelators, but all chelating agents are polyphenols by definition because they are a sub-class. Polyphenols are a group of chemicals that act as a plant's defence system, analogously they combine the role of skin, plus immune system, gastrointestinal system plus kidneys in human beings - repel, attack, entomb, kill and flush away/expel. We can define a polyphenol as any chemical that is by virtue of its structure a naturally occurring:
- Radiation ameliorator or protector
- Anti-parasitic or anti-predator [including all the other words used to describe this ability, for example, anthelmintic, insecticide, pesticide]
- Chelator of heavy metals and other toxins
- Chelator of ‘bad air’
We are thus interested here in the chelating actions of a plant chemical. There are several thousand polyphenol types and even more chemicals, and even if we home in on the chelators we are still dealing with a very large group of chemicals. Thus we decided the most helpful thing was to provide examples, using Dr Duke's database and research to help us.
At the moment research often establishes that one specific plant chemical has anti-viral or anti-bacterial, or chelating properties. The exciting and challenging area for research in the future will be matching plant chemicals with specific pathogens and matching plant chemicals with specific toxins.
Example natural chelating agents
If you follow the links, it takes you to the science section with a definition and in most cases a list of the plants that contain this chemical, the list being derived from Dr Duke's phytochemical database:
Sulphur - sulphur can react as either an oxidant or reducing agent. It oxidizes most metals and several nonmetals, including carbon, and it reduces several strong oxidants, such as oxygen and fluorine. At one time sulphur rich waters- such as those found at hot springs and in volcanic areas, were drunk to treat lead poisoning – and it worked. Sulphur's ability to react with carbon makes it a useful chemical - in food or mineral water, to counteract the various forms of smoke, so it is a smoke chelating agent. This may explain why the French - former lovers of the Gauloises cigarrete [how I miss the smell] and ingestors of large quantities of garlic, had few heart problems.
Malic acid - There are also natural chelating agents for other metals - malic acid has been used for iron intoxication and nickel poisoning for example. It has also been used to 'heal' land. The malic acid in alafalfa chelated molybdenum in mine tailings making the land safe for cattle. It appeared to do the plant no harm and the plant converted it to a harmless chemical. Another example:
Plants have evolved various mechanisms for detoxification that are specific to the plant species as well as the metal ion chemical properties. Malic acid, which is commonly found in plants, participates in a number of physiological processes including metal chelation. Using natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions, we investigated the function of malic acid in Nickel (Ni) tolerance and detoxification. The Ni-induced production of reactive oxygen species was found to be modulated by intracellular malic acid, indicating its crucial role in Ni detoxification. Ni tolerance in Arabidopsis may actively involve malic acid and/or complexes of Ni and malic acid. Investigation of malic acid content in roots among tolerant ecotypes suggested that a complex of Ni and malic acid may be involved in translocation of Ni from roots to leaves. PMID: 22411507
Carnosol - is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene. It is found in Rosemary, various sorts of Sage and in a small number of other plants. It is a metal chelator [Ref McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.]
Caffeic acid - Caffeic acid is an organic compound found in all plants because it is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of lignin. Lignin is part of the cell wall of plants and helps to give the cell structure and mechanical strength and thus by extension the plant as a whole. It has metal chelating activities.
Chlorogenic acid - is a natural chemical compound found in coffee beans, bilberries, blueberries and nettles. It is a metal chelator. [McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.
Anthocyanidins - Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals. There is known metal chelating ability and one metal tentatively tested is aluminium. More work is needed here.
Curcumin - Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). The curcuminoids are natural phenols that are responsible for the yellow colour of turmeric. They are indications that it is an iron chelator, but by saying this one rather simplifies the activity, you need to see the detail.
Ferulic acid - Ferulic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a type of organic compound. It is an abundant phenolic phytochemical found in plant cell walls. Its name comes from the word Ferula, referring to the giant fennel. Ferulic acid, like many natural phenols, is an antioxidant and a metal chelator.
Tannins - A tannin is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenol that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids. They occur in numerous plants including well known ones like black tea. Unfortunately although the chelating ability is known it is not well defined, with mercury being one known metal.
Plants as detoxifiers of land
There is little use our using chelating agents if the land on which our food is grown or the sea in which our seafoods are obtained is still polluted.
We have seen in the example of malic acid above that plants such as alfalfa can remove toxins from soil. This facility is one shared by a number of plants, for example:
Decontamination of polluted soils using plants is based on the ability of plant species (including transgenic plants) to enhance bioavailability of pollutants in the rhizosphere and support growth of pollutant-degrading microorganisms via root exudation and plant species-specific composition of the exudates. In this work, we review current knowledge of enantiomers of low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic compounds with emphasis on their use in phytoremediation. Many research studies have been performed to search for plants suitable for decontamination of polluted soils. Nevertheless, the natural occurrence of L- versus D-enantiomers of dominant compounds of plant root exudates which play different roles in the complexation of heavy metals, chemoattraction, and support of pollutant-degrading microorganisms were not included in these studies. D-enantiomers of aliphatic organic acids and amino acids or L-enantiomers of carbohydrates occur in high concentrations in root exudates of some plant species, especially under stress, and are less stimulatory for plants to extract heavy metals or for rhizosphere microflora to degrade pollutants compared with L-enantiomers (organic acids and amino acids) or D-carbohydrates. Determining the ratio of L- versus D-enantiomers of organic compounds as a criterion of plant suitability for decontamination of polluted soils and development of other types of bioremediation technologies need to be subjects of future research. PMID: 24249143
Any plant that upon analysis contains a toxin, when it has no need of that toxin itself is, by definition capable of chelating the soil.
In the science section we have provided some examples of dangerous toxins and the plants that contained a toxin upon analysis. The lists are from Dr Duke's phytochemical database. The implications are also clear, that it is not safe to eat these plants if they have been grown on contaminated land.
Once the chelation of the land is complete, the plants need to be disposed of safely, for example placed in a deep pit - an open cast mine for example or other deep hole in the ground - where they cannot resurface and where their contaminants are safely buried.
- Mercury chelating plants
- Lead chelating plants
- Cadmium chelating plants
- Aluminium chelating plants
- Arsenic chelating plants
If you go to Dr Duke's database you will be able to get an up-to-date list for other toxins.
There is the possibility that if the plant itself is toxin free and the part that collects the toxin is edible, the plant may be able to chelate us too, thus this aspect is worth investigating to see if there are plants we do no yet know about that can help us, not just the soil.
Plants as the detoxifiers of air
We have listed the chemicals that can chelate carbon from us, and those same chemicals in plants can also help with carbon chelation, although it is clear that plants suffer dramatically from fumes.
But there is a group of plants that are Ozone scavengers.
All are based on Limonene, a list of these plants is to be found in the science section.
The list comes from Dr Duke's phytochemical database and may be updated with more plants in due course, as such you will need to go to Dr Duke to get an up-to-date list.
References and further reading
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jul 9;56(13):5437-42. doi: 10.1021/jf800489c. Epub 2008 Jun 11. Chelation of molybdenum in Medicago sativa (alfalfa) grown on reclaimed mine tailings. Steinke DR1, Majak W, Sorensen TS, Parvez M. Author information 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 3015 Ord Road, Kamloops, B.C., Canada. email@example.com PMID: 18543934
Chirality. 2014 Jan;26(1):1-20. doi: 10.1002/chir.22255. Epub 2013 Nov 19. Natural occurrence of enantiomers of organic compounds versus phytoremediations: should research on phytoremediations be revisited? A mini-review. Lojková L1, Vranová V, Rejšek K, Formánek P. PMID: 24249143
Planta. 2012 Aug;236(2):477-89. doi: 10.1007/s00425-012-1621-2. Epub 2012 Mar 13. Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions reveals malic acid as a key mediator of Nickel (Ni) tolerance. Agrawal B1, Lakshmanan V, Kaushik S, Bais HP.
McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. - Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health
We have provided a table in the Science section that attempts to summarise the information in the observations. Follow the LINK.
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- Tree species diversity interacts with elevated CO2 to induce a greater root system response 021038
- A novel arsenate respiring isolate that can utilize aromatic substrates 017779
- A safe strategy to decrease fetal lead exposure in a woman with chronic intoxication 017787
- Acclimation of photosystem II to high temperature in two Wedelia species from different geographical origins: implications for biological invasions upon global warming 019422
- Accumulation and distribution of trivalent chromium and effects on hybrid willow (Salix matsudana Koidz x alba L.) metabolism 020525
- Aluminium poisoning and ginger 017801
- Aluminum in the diet and Alzheimer's disease: from current epidemiology to possible disease-modifying treatment 017802
- Ameliorative effects of ferulic Acid against lead acetate-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions and toxicity in prepubertal rat brain 017777
- Anthocyanins as tertiary chemopreventive agents in bladder cancer: anti-oxidant mechanisms and interaction with mitomycin C 017773
- Arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and lead (Pb) availability from Au-mine Technosols: a case study of transfer to natural vegetation cover in temperate climates 018259
- Arsenic and drinking water, chelation therapy 017785
- Assessment of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status and heavy metal accumulation characteristics of tree species in a lead-zinc mine area: potential applications for phytoremediation 018311
- Bath spa 006679
- Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in plant leaves from Yan׳an city of the Loess Plateau, China 018313
- Bioaugmentation process of secondary effluents for reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics 023160
- Cadmium, Lead and DMSA chelation 016839
- Carnosol: a phenolic diterpene with cancer chemopreventive potential 017759
- Characterization of Cd-induced molecular events prior to cellular damage in primary rat hepatocytes in culture: activation of the stress activated signal protein JNK and transcription factor AP-1 017756
- Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans 017761
- Complexation of lead(II) by chlorogenic acid: experimental and theoretical study 017770
- Coriander and lead poisoning 006734
- DMPS (2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate, dimaval) decreases the body burden of mercury in humans exposed to mercurous chloride 017751
- Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria) as Indicators of Geogenic Contamination of Flysch Soils in Eastern Slovakia 019200
- Description of 3,180 courses of chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid in children ≤ 5 y with severe lead poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: a retrospective analysis of programme data 017788
- Determination of the chelating site preferentially involved in the complex of lead(II) with caffeic acid: a spectroscopic and structural study 017769
- Dietary Strategies for the Treatment of Cadmium and Lead Toxicity - 01 Introduction 016835
- Dr Duke' list of plants as an antidote to mercury 017771
- Dr Duke's activity for Carnosol 017757
- Dr Duke's activity in Caffeic acid 017760
- Dr Duke's list of Chelating activity for Colocynth 018077
- Dr Duke's list of Chelating activity for the Dock 018087
- Dr Duke's list of Chelating activity for the Dog Rose 018090
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Menyanthaceae) -- Bog Myrtle, Bogbean, Buckbean, Marsh Clover, Marsh Trefoil, Water Trefoil 018266
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Opopanax chironium (L.) KOCH (Apiaceae) -- Hercules All Heal, Opopanax 018264
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Prunella vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae) -- Heal-All, Self-Heal 018270
- Dr Duke's list of Medicinal Plants having metal chelating activity 018061
- Dr Duke's list of Plant parts with Metal-chelator Activity from the chemical CURCUMIN 018255
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing NICKEL 021500
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antidote (Lead) activity 018377
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antidote (Mercury) activity 018376
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Copper chelator activity 018387
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Metal chelating ability from FERULIC ACID - PART 1 018253
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Metal chelating ability from FERULIC ACID - PART 2 018254
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Metal-chelator activity 018064
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Metal-chelator activity at high concentrations 018060
- Dr Duke's list of activities for Chlorogenic acid 017767
- Dr Duke's list of activities for Tannins 017824
- Dr Duke's list of activities of Tannin 017796
- Dr Duke's list of activity for Ferulic acid 017775
- Dr Duke's list of activity for Vitamin B6 017763
- Dr Duke's list of activity for Vitamin C 017762
- Dr Duke's list of aluminium chelating plants 017803
- Dr Duke's list of chemicals and activity for the Shallot 017969
- Dr Duke's list of mercury chelating plants 017825
- Dr Duke's list of the Biological Activities of RUTIN 018281
- Dr Duke’s list of Chelating Activities in: Ailanthus altissima -- Stinktree, Tree Of Heaven 018309
- EDTA redistribution of lead and cadmium into the soft tissues in a human with a high lead burden - should DMSA always be used to follow EDTA in such cases? 017783
- Effect of cadmium on cytogenetic toxicity in hairy roots of Wedelia trilobata L. and their alleviation by exogenous CaCl2 019424
- Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the TACT randomized trial 017754
- Effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections with Chinese 018887
- Effectively simultaneous naked-eye detection of Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and Fe(III) using cyanidin extracted from red cabbage as chelating agent 017795
- Effects of chelators on mercury, iron, and lead neurotoxicity in cortical culture 017786
- Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas 017966
- Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities of safflower natural dyes during flowering 020848
- Gomphrena claussenii, a novel metal-hypertolerant bioindicator species, sequesters cadmium, but not zinc, in vacuolar oxalate crystals 016799
- Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils 021353
- Growth conditions, elemental accumulation and induced physiological changes in Chinese cabbage 017790
- Heavy metal stress in alders: Tolerance and vulnerability of the actinorhizal symbiosis. 021021
- Hepatoprotective effect of Arctium lappa root extract on cadmium toxicity in adult Wistar rats 017007
- Hot baths, lead workers and astronauts 006680
- Hydrangeas as chelators of aluminium in soil 017792
- Impact assessment of mercury accumulation and biochemical and molecular response of Mentha arvensis: a potential hyperaccumulator plant 019417
- In vitro assessment of chelating agents with regard to their abstraction efficiency of Cd(2+) bound to plasma proteins 017784
- Influence of amendments and aided phytostabilization on metal availability and mobility in Pb/Zn mine tailings 018258
- Malic acid as a chelating agent 006176
- Mechanisms involved in the chemoprotective effects of rosemary extract studied in human liver and bronchial cells 017758
- Mercury in foods and fish and selenium as a chelation agent 013083
- Metal Complex Pigment Involved in the Blue Sepal Color Development of Hydrangea 017793
- Metals as a common trigger of inflammation resulting in non-specific symptoms: diagnosis and treatment 018229
- Molecular mechanisms triggered by mercury 017753
- Mrs Grieve on Alehoof or Ground Ivy 018068
- Nephroprotective effects of ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide and E-ligustilide isolated from Angelica sinensis against cisplatin toxicity in vitro 017776
- Net degradation of methyl mercury in alder swamps 021022
- Neuroprotective Effect of Portulaca oleraceae Ethanolic Extract Ameliorates Methylmercury Induced Cognitive Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Cerebellum and Cortex of Rat Brain 018903
- Parkinson's disease and manganese poisoning 006197
- Physiological and proteomic responses of different willow clones (Salix fragilis x alba) exposed to dredged sediment contaminated by heavy metals 020524
- Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine 019128
- Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site 021288
- Porcini mushrooms and heavy metal poisoning 005298
- Porcini mushrooms as antioxidants 008756
- Protective effect of apple (Ralls) polyphenol extract against aluminum-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative damage in rat 017749
- Protective effect of curcumin against heavy metals-induced liver damage 017774
- Protective effect of vanilloids against chemical stress on the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum 017778
- Radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by turnips and broad beans via leaf and root absorption 022042
- Removal of copper ions from aqueous solution by adlai shell (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) adsorbents 021303
- Rhubarb and paraquat poisoning 016076
- Role of aluminum in red-to-blue color changes in Hydrangea macrophylla sepals 017794
- Smoke and toxin chelation 017748
- Soustelle - Aztecs and Mexica - Healing with plants 011458
- Studies on phytoremediation of copper using Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) in the presence of biostimulants and bioassay using Clarias gariepinus juveniles 018257
- Summary of Dr Duke’s analysis showing the Antipathogenic Activities in: Azadirachta indica -- Neem 018320
- The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden 018265
- The effect of the phenolic antioxidant ferulic acid on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein depends on the pro-oxidant used 017780
- The influence of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on selected parameters of oxidative stress and microelements contents in men with hypercholesterolemia 017791
- The potential for phytoremediation of iron cyanide complex by willows 020526
- The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury 017752
- Therapeutic efficacy of chlorogenic acid on cadmium-induced oxidative neuropathy in a murine model 017768
- Vegetation composition and ²²⁶Ra uptake by native plant species at a uranium mill tailings impoundment in South China 018260
- meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid: chemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of an orally effective metal chelating agent 017750
- Arsenic, water and burning treated wood 006906
- Cobalt poisoning and hip replacement 006878
- Copper imbalance and Wilson's disease 006910
- Etidronate disodium hallucinations 006844
- Exacerbation of aluminium encephalopathy after treatment with desferrioxamine 017804
- Exjade 018982
- Hallucinations and brain damage from molybdenum supplements 006333
- ICNR - Vaccines and Schizophrenia 012329
- Kayexalate 006435
- Lead toxicity in battery workers 019591
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