Porcini mushrooms and heavy metal poisoning
Type of Spiritual Experience
There are two ways in which to use the results of this paper.
In the first place it is telling you not to eat porcini mushrooms from a contaminated area, as they may contain heavy metals that will poison you.
In safe areas, however, a porcini mushroom will be heavy metal and toxin free, so exactly the same compounds that extract heavy metals and toxins from the soil will do the same for you.
A description of the experience
Mycologia. 2007 Mar-Apr;99(2):161-74. First report of phytochelatins in a mushroom: induction of phytochelatins by metal exposure in Boletus edulis. Collin-Hansen C, Pedersen SA, Andersen RA, Steinnes E. Yale University, School of Medicine, CMHC, 34 Park Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA. Christian.Collin-Hansen@yale.ed
Some species of macromycetes (mushrooms) consistently are found to contain high concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), and consumption of wild-growing mushrooms is acknowledged as a significant source for Cd and Hg in humans. Yet little is known about the speciation of Cd and Hg in mushroom tissues. Here we present the first evidence of peptides of the phytochelatin family being responsible for binding a large fraction of Cd in caps of the macromycete Boletus edulis exposed to excess metals. Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg, as well as cytosolic Cd-binding capacity (CCBC), glutathione (GSH) and free proline (Pro) were quantified in fruiting bodies of B. edulis differentially exposed to a wide range of metals. Metal distribution among cytosolic compounds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), followed by metal determinations with atomic absorption chromatography (AAS) and HR-ICP-MS. Cd-binding compounds in SEC elutates were investigated further by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). CCBC was >90 times higher in the exposed group relative to the reference group (Mann-Whitney's P < 0.001), whereas concentrations of free Pro were almost identical for the two groups. For the whole study selection, CCBC correlated positively with metal exposure (Spearman's P < 0.001 for all four metals), suggesting dose-dependent induction of Cd-binding compounds by exposure to these metals, possibly as a defense mechanism. The presence of phytochelatins (PCs), a family of cystein-rich oligopeptides, was confirmed in Cd-containing SEC fractions by HPLC-MS. The appearance of more complex PCs was coupled to declining concentrations of GSH. To our knowledge this is the first report demonstrating the presence of PCs in a macromycete.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Muscarine and the muscarinic ligands