Phytoremediation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous system by riverine macrophyte, Acorus calamus: toxicity and removal rate
Type of Spiritual Experience
Chlorpyrifos (CPS), sold under many brand names, is an organophosphate pesticide used to kill a number of pests including insects and worms. It is used on crops, animals, and buildings. It was introduced in 1965 by Dow Chemical Company. It acts on the nervous system of insects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase.
Chlorpyrifos is considered hazardous to humans by the World Health Organization. Exposure surpassing recommended levels has been linked to neurological effects, persistent developmental disorders and autoimmune disorders. Exposure during pregnancy may harm the mental development of children, and most home use was banned in 2001 in the U.S.
Despite this, in agriculture, it is "one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides" in the United States, and before being phased out for residential use was one of the most used residential insecticides.
On March 29, 2017, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt denied a petition to ban chlorpyrifos. However, on August 9, 2018, the U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ordered the EPA to ban the sale of chlorpyrifos in the United States within 60 days.
Unfortunately in many countries residues remain in the soil.
A description of the experience
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Aug;23(16):16241-8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-016-6673-6. Epub 2016 May 7.
Phytoremediation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous system by riverine macrophyte, Acorus calamus: toxicity and removal rate.
Wang Q1, Li C2, Zheng R2, Que X3.
1Beijing Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, People's Republic of China. email@example.com.
2Beijing Research & Development Center for Grass and Environment, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100097, People's Republic of China.
3Institute of Desertification Studies, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, People's Republic of China. firstname.lastname@example.org.
The potential of Acorus calamus to remove chlorpyrifos from water was assessed under laboratory conditions.
Toxic effects of the insecticide in A. calamus were evaluated using pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence techniques as well. At exposure concentrations above 8 mg L(-1), A. calamus showed obvious phytotoxic symptom with significant reduction in quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) in 20-day test; the inhibition of maximal quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) was accompanied by a significant rise in initial chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo) within 15-day exposures. Fv/Fm and Fo recover to the normal level after 20-day exposure.
The reduced removal rate to chlorpyrifos was observed with increase of initial chlorpyrifos concentrations.
At application levels of 1, 2, and 4 mg L(-1), the disappearance rate of chlorpyrifos in the hydroponic system with plants was significantly greater than that without plants during the 20-day test periods.
Chlorpyrifos was taken up from medium and transferred to above ground tissues by the plant and significant amounts of chlorpyrifos accumulated in plant tissues. The result indicated that A. calamus can promote the disappearance of chlorpyrifos from water and may be used for phytoremediation of water contaminated with a relatively low concentration of chlorpyrifos insecticide (<4 mg L(-1)).
Pesticide; Phytoremediation; Phytotoxicity; Riverine plant
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
SuppressionsAcorus calamus (Sweet Flag, Calamus, Vacha, Gladdon, Rat root, Sweet grass, Sweet rush, Sweet sedge)