Metals and brain disease
Type of Spiritual Experience
A background paper on causes
A description of the experience
Int Rev Neurobiol. 2013;110:1-47. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-410502-7.00002-8. The relevance of metals in the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, pathological considerations. Jellinger KA. Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Neurodegenerative disorders are featured by a variety of pathological conditions that share similar critical processes, such as oxidative stress, free radical activity, proteinaceous aggregations, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and energy failure.
They are mediated or triggered by an imbalance of metal ions leading to changes of critical biological systems and initiating a cascade of events finally leading to neurodegeneration and cell death.
Their causes are multifactorial, and although the source of the shift in oxidative homeostasis is still unclear, current evidence points to changes in the balance of redox transition metals, especially iron, copper, and other trace metals.
They are present at elevated levels in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, multisystem atrophy, etc., while in other neurodegenerative disorders, copper, zinc, aluminum, and manganese are involved.
This chapter will review the recent advances of the role of metals in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of major neurodegenerative diseases and discuss the use of chelating agents as potential therapies for metal-related disorders.
© 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chelation therapy, Metal ions, Neurodegeneration, Oxidative stress, Protein aggregation
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