Observations placeholder

Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Menyanthes trifoliata L. (Menyanthaceae) -- Bog Myrtle, Bogbean, Buckbean, Marsh Clover, Marsh Trefoil, Water Trefoil



Type of Spiritual Experience


Not all the activities have been cross referenced.

A description of the experience



No activity reported.


Antiinflammatory >Phenylbutazone; Antipyretic HH1:5

ASCORBIC-ACID Leaf 2,047 ppm; DUKE1992A

Acidulant FEMA 6,000 ARC ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor SYN-X ; Analgesic 5-10 g/day; Angiotensin-Receptor-Blocker NP6:1 ; AntiAGE 2,000 mg/day SYN-X ; Antiaggregant SYN-X ; Antiaging 400 mg/day; Antiallergic PIL ; Antialzheimeran 2,000-6,000 mg/day; Antiarthritic 0.2-1 g/day; Antiasthmatic 1,000 mg/day WER ; Antiatherosclerotic; Antibacterial DAS ; Anticataract 1 g 3x/day 350 mg/day WER 400 mg/day SYN-X ; Anticervicaldysplasic 1,000-2,000 mg/day; AntiCFS 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Anticlimacteric 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Anticold 1-2 g/man/day; AntiCrohn's 50-100 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; AntiCTS 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antidecubitic 500 mg/man/2x/day MAR ; Antidementia MPP ; Antidepressant 2,000 mg/day WER ; Antidiabetic SYN-X ; Antidote (Aluminum) EMP6:189 ; Antidote (Cadmium) DAS ; Antidote (Lead) DAS ; Antidote (Paraquat) MAR ; Antieczemic 3.5-5 g/day WER ; Antiedemic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antiencephalitic DAS ; Antiendometriotic 2,000 mg/day WAF ; Antifatigue 500-1,000 mg TE2 ; Antifibrotic 1,000-2,000 mg WAF ; Antigallstone 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; Antigastritic PIL ; Antigingivitic; Antiglaucomic 2 g/day WER ; Antihangover 1,000 mg WAF ; Antihemorrhagic 1 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatitic 2-6 g/man/day DAS ; Antihepatotoxic EMP6:189 ; Antiherpetic 1-5 g/day; Antihistaminic 2 g/day orl man; Antihypertensive NP6:1 ; Antiinfertility 1 g/day WER ; Antiinflammatory PAM ; Antilepric 1.5 g/man/day MAR ; Antilithic 1,000-3,000 mg/day WAF ; AntiLyme 500-2,000 mg KEN ; Antimaculitic; Antimeasles DAS ; Antimenopausal 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antimigraine M29 ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antineuramidase X634178 ; Antinitrosic 1 g/man/day MAR ; Antiobesity 1 g 3x/day WER ; Antiorchitic DAS ; Antiosteoarthritic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antiosteoporotic 500 mg/day; Antioxidant 100 ppm DUKE1992B ; Antiparkinsonian 1 g 2-3x/day; Antiparotitic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic 1 g 2x/day WER ; Antipneumonic PAM ; Antipodriac DAS ; Antipoliomyelitic DAS ; Antipyretic EMP6:189 ; Antiradicular SYN-X ; AntiRaynaud's 500 mg 1-2x/day WAF ; Antiretinotic PIL ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antirhinitic 1,000 mg 3x/day WAF ; Antiscorbutic 10 mg/man/day MAR ; Antiseptic 4-8 g/day SYN-X MIC=3.3-217 mg/ml MAR ; Antishingles DAS ; Antispasmodic 500-5,000 mg/day WAF ; Antistress 500-1,000 mg; Antisyndrome-X 1-4 g/day SYN-X ; Antitumor (Gastric) PIL ; Antitumor (Lung) NR54:S71 ; Antiulcer; Antiviral 1-5 g/day; Apoptotic 1-10 mM BO2 ; Asthma-preventive 1,000 mg/day/orl PAM ; Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker NP6:1 ; Beta-Glucuronidase-Inhibitor 1.5 g/day/man BO2 ; Calcium-Antagonist NP6:1 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective PIL ; Cold-preventive 1-2 g/day DAS ; Collagenic BO2 ; Detoxicant DUKE1992B ; Diuretic 700 mg/man/orl NP6:1 ; Fistula-Preventive PAM ; Hypocholesterolemic 300-1,000 mg/day DAS ; Hypoglycemic SYN-X ; Hypotensive 1,000 mg/man/day; Immunomodulator PIL ; Immunostimulant SYN-X ; Interferonogenic PAM ; Lithogenic DAS ; Mucolytic 1 g/woman/day MAR ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Uricosuric 4 g/man/day DAS ; Urinary-Acidulant M29 ; Vasodilator NP6:1 ; Vulnerary PAM


Allergenic M29 ; Anesthetic MAR ; Antiodontalgic MAR ; Antipruritic DUKE1992B ; Antiseptic M29 ; FLavor Fema 200-1,200 ARC ; Fungicide X16719518 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative JA6(4):40


Allergenic M&R610 ; Androgenic? PAM ; Antiacne PAM ; Antiaging DUKE1992B ; Antiarthritic MPP ; Antiasthmatic PAM ; Anticancer JNU ; Anticarcinomic PAM ; Anticervicaldysplasic MPP ; Anticoronary 50 mg/man/2 days CMR3/4/91:16 ; Antihyperkeratotic; Antiichythyotic PAM ; Antileukoplakic; Antilipoperoxidant IC71=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antilupus 150 mg/man/day/2 mos MAR ; Antimaculitic; Antimastitic PAM ; Antimutagenic EMP6:235 ; Antioxidant PAM ; Antiozenic DUKE1992B ; Antipapillomic MPP ; Antiphotophobic 30-300 mg/man/day M29 ; Antipityriasic PAM ; AntiPMS JAFC34:409 ; Antiporphyric MAR ; Antiproliferant JNU ; Antipsoriac PAM ; Antiradicular PAM ; Antirheumatic MPP ; Antistress DAS ; Antitumor HSC25:1495 ; Antitumor (Breast) IC45=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (CNS) IC43=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Colon) X16277432 ; Antitumor (Lung) IC30=60 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antitumor (Prostate) MES ; Antitumor (Stomach) IC26=45 ug/ml X16277432 ; Antiulcer 12 mg 3x/day/man/orl PAM 15,000-25,000 IU/day WAF ; Antixerophthalmic DAS ; Cancer-Preventive 22 ppm 505 ; Chemopreventive MES ; Colorant JBH ; COX-1-Inhibitor IC78=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC82=50 ug/ml X16277432 ; Gastroprotective X6654625 ; Immunostimulant 180 mg/man/day/orl PAM ; Interferon-Synergist PJB1(2):264 ; Mucogenic PAM ; Phagocytotic PAM ; Prooxidant 20 ug/g JAF44:2096 ; Thymoprotective PAM ; Ubiquiot JBH


Anticarcinomic PJB1(3):232 ; Antifeedant JAF38:494 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; AntiHIV 6.1 uM JNP66:263 ; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral; Aphidifuge JAF38:493 ; Cytotoxic 600 ppm DUKE1992B 8.6 uM JNP66:263 ; Hypolipemic PMP23:49 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor IC50=119 uM YHH30:621 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=38.6 uM JNP64:1545

BETULINIC-ACID Rhizome 1,000 ppm; PHYT13:2002,JAD Root 1,000 - 8,000 ppm DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic X11315752 ; Antibacterial X10630117 ; Anticancer JBH ; Anticarcinomic JBH ; Antiedemic X7701004 ; AntiHIV 14.8 uM EC50=2.0 ug/ml JNP61:1090 IC50=6.5 ug/ml; Antiinflammatory PM61:9 ; Antileukemic X9353895 ; Antimalarial IC50=19-26 ug/ml PR13:115 ; Antimelanomic NYT3/28/95 ; Antinociceptive; Antiplasmodial PR13:115 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiviral 14.8 uM; Apoptotic; Cytotoxic 16.4 uM JNP66:263 50-100 ppm BPCC ; Phospholipase-A2-Inhibitor X11684183 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 200 ug/ml PC48:495 IC50=101 uM YHH30:621


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 4 ug/ml (weak activity) SKN43:99 ; Allergenic M&R317 ; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiadenoviral EMP5:207 ; Antiaggregant JBH ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antiatherogenic X15712986 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticarcinogenic EMP6:189 ; Antidepressant; Antiedemic EMP6:189 ; Antielastase IC50=86 ug/ml (475 uM) PM69:820 IC50=93 um/l X11199135 ; Antiescherichic PR14:561 ; Antiflu EMP5:207 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 25 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatoadenomic 200 ppm diet orl mus ACS661:230 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56:173 ; Antiherpetic 50 ug/ml EC50=>50 ug/ml POP:270 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EC50=200 ug/ml; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic AJC31:37 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antiophidic FT65(2):101 ; Antioxidant 1.3 x Vit. E BO2 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 30 mM JAF48:235 50 uM PC27:973 IC57=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxidant IC35=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 IC50=44 uM PM57:A54 IC85=100 ug/ml X15796587 ; Antiproliferant AJC31:37 ; Antiprostaglandin PJB1(1):169 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 10 uM PC36:579 30 mM JAF48:235 IC50=32-35 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiseptic JE26:76 ; Antispasmodic EC50=3.4-15 uM PR4:73 ; Antistaphylococcic PR14:561 ; Antistomatitic EMP5:207 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithiamin PCF:69 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor 200 ppm diet orl mus; Antitumor (Skin) JAF50:3718 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC42=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiulcerogenic; Antivaccinia EMP5:207 ; Antiviral IC50=62.5 ug/ml; Anxiolytic X12802204 ; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=1.2 uM rbt K16299 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Carcinogenic 2% (diet); Chemopreventive X15712986 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic 411 ; Clastogenic JBH ; CNS-Active WIC ; Co-carcinogenic PCF:44 ; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; COX-2-Inhibitor IC32=100 uM JNP65:1517 ; Cytoprotective CAN ; Cytotoxic TC50=200 ug/ml POP:270 ; Diuretic WIC ; DNA-Active JBH ; DNA-Protective JAF50:7022 ; Fungicide MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Hepatocarcinogenic 400 ppm diet orl mus (in the absence of alcohol) ACS661:230 ; Hepatoprotective ACM:210 ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Immunostimulant PPL7:187 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC27=5 mM JAF38:688 IC50=62-148 uM JAF44:2057 ; Lyase-Inhibitor IC50=94-164 uM JAF44:2057 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Prooxidant JAFC45:632 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Sedative 500 mg RWG17 ; Sunscreen IC50=2.5 mg/l FT64:134 IC91=5 mg/l FT64:134 IC98=25 mg/l FT64:134 ; Tumorigenic 505 ; Vulnerary JE26:76 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC50=39.21 uM MAB


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=1.8 uM rat (strong activity) CPB47:340 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Allergenic; Analgesic PMP23:51 ; Antiatherosclerotic X11413687 ; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Colon) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:1523 ; Antidiabetic X15796587 ; AntiEBV EMP6:189 ; Antifeedant; Antigenotoxic JAF45:1523 ; Antigonadotropic JNM1:10 ; Antihemolytic 10 uM PC36:579 ; Antihepatotoxic PM56(2):173 ; Antiherpetic EMP5:194 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; AntiHIV EMP6:189 ; Antihypercholesterolemic EMP6:189 ; Antihyperthyroid; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukotriene DUKE1992B ; Antimelanogenic JAF50:3718 ; Antimutagenic PCF:245 ; Antinitrosaminic; Antioxidant IC50=54.2 uM X15796587 IC53=200 ppm PCF:21 IC80=12 uM PC27:973 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=36 uM PM57:A54 ; Antipolio V&E ; Antiradicular 10 uM PC36:579 9 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic PMP23:51 ; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithyroid JNM1:10 ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin); Antitumor-Promoter IC25=10 uM; Antiulcer EMP6:189 ; Antiviral V&D ; Autotoxic JCE26:315 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cardioprotective; Chemopreventive JAF53:3882 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; Clastogenic JAF38:805 ; CNS-Active WIC ; CNS-Stimulant 1/6 Caffeine; Collagen-Sparing PM61:510 ; Diuretic; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective KCH ; Histamine-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Hypoglycemic X15796587 ; Immunostimulant; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Interferonogenic EMP1:124 ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat JBH ; Leukotriene-Inhibitor DUKE1992B ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC23=5 mM JAF38:688 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; NO-Genic JAF50:850 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Sweetener LAF ; Vulnerary CAN210


Antialzheimeran 5-16 g/man/day; Antichoreic DAS ; Anticirrhotic 6,000 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticystinuric DUKE1992B ; Antidementia PJB1(1):171 ; Antidiabetic DUKE1992B ; Antidyskinetic 150-200 mg/kg/man/day MAR ; Antihomocysteine SN160:282 ; Antimanic 15-30 g/man/day/orl PAM ; Antinociceptive X579998 ; Antisteatotic JN133:1302 ; Cardiodepressant SN160:282 ; Cerebrotonic SN160:282 ; Cholinergic CAN ; Hepatoprotective JN127:893S ; Hypotensive DUKE1992B ; Ileorelaxant FT1990:509 ; Lipotropic JE26:86 ; Memorigenic SN160:282 ; Parasympathomimetic (1/1,000th acetylcholine) HDN

EO Leaf 670 - 700 ppm DUKE1992A

No activity reported.


Allelopathic JCE17:865 ; Analgesic ACM:69 ; Antiaggregant CPB38:1620 ; Antiallergic LAF ; Antiarrhythmic PJB1(2):270 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer (Colon); Anticancer (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Liver) PAL:335 ; Anticancer (Skin) PAL:335 ; Anticarcinogenic JAF45:661 ; Antidysmenorrheic CPB38:1623 ; Antiestrogenic JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic JAR10:7 ; Antiinflammatory PCF:19 ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antimitotic JBH ; Antimutagenic PCF:18 ; Antineoplastic (Stomach) NR11:S120 ; Antinitrosaminic PCF:18 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHA JAF50:889 1/3 quercetin JAF49:3653 3,000 uM PC27:973 EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC51=200 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiradicular EC50=9-15 ug/ml JAF50:5850 IC50=116-124 uM JAF50:7022 ; Antiserotonin JBH ; Antispasmodic LAF ; Antithrombic LAF ; Antitumor JBH ; Antitumor (Colon); Antitumor (Forestomach) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Liver) PAL:335 ; Antitumor (Skin) PAL:335 ; Antitumor-Promoter IC46=10 uM CR48:5941 ; Antiviral V&D ; Arteriodilator CPB38:1620 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Candidicide JBH ; Cardiac CPB38:1620 ; Cholagogue PHZ46:156 ; Choleretic 411 ; Fungicide NIG ; Hepatoprotective MAB ; Hepatotropic DUKE1992B ; Herbicide AB68:195 ; Hydrocholerectic JBH ; Hypolipidemic NR11:S120 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Insectifuge EB48:111 ; Metal-Chelator PCF:25 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor PCF:19 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic; Preservative M11 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Prostaglandin-Synthesis-Inhibitor 0.58-3.2 mM YHH25:412 ; Sunscreen CMR9/10/92 ; Uterosedative 30-100 mg/kg ivn rat CPB38:1620


Antianemic 5-20 mg/man/day DUKE1992B ; Anticervicaldysplasic 8-30 mg/wmn/day/orl PAM ; Anticheilitic DAS ; Antidepressant DAS ; Antigingivitic 2-5 mg/day/man PAM ; Antiglossitic DAS ; Antimyelotoxic 5 mg/day/orl/man M29 ; Antineuropathic DAS ; Antiperiodontitic PAM ; Antiplaque PAM ; Antipsychotic M29 ; AntiSpina-Bifida DAS ; Hematopoietic M11 ; Uricosuric PAM ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PAM


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive JBH ; Hypothermic JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH


Analgesic W&W ; Antianaphylactic PJB1(2):272 ; Antiarthritic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PJB1(2):272 ; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antihistaminic PJB1(2):272 ; Antiinflammatory W&W ; Antimeningitic ivn man PJB1(2):272 ; Antipsychotic W&W ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antishigellic PJB1(2):272 ; Antistaphylococcic PJB1(2):272 ; Antistreptococcic PJB1(2):272 ; Ataractic W&W ; CNS-Paralytic JBH ; CNS-Stimulant JBH ; Corticosterogenic KCH ; Emetic KCH ; Hypoglycemic DUKE1992B ; Hypotensive JBH ; Myorelaxant JBH ; Neurotoxic RJH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative W&W


No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Antibacterial PJB1(1):177 ; Antiinflammatory DUKE1992B ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antioxidant DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral DUKE1992B ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive FT1990:501 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor JBH ; Analgesic PR14:401 ; Antiaging PM69:1125 ; Antibacterial MIC=250-500 ug/ml PM57:A43 ; Anticancer PM69:1125 ; Anticapillary-Fragility TOX ; Antidermatitic DUKE1992B ; Antielastase IC50=0.15 ug/ml X11417917 ; Antiflu AYL ; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiinflammatory 1/4 indomethacin PM57:A131 ; Antiischemic X13677356 ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC50=4.6 uM; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiviral; Antiwrinkle; Calcium-Antagonist X8036895 ; cAMP-Inhibitor IC50=0.14 mg/ml PM57:A133 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillarifortificant JBH ; Capillarigenic JBH ; Cyclooxygenase-Activator 100 uM HH2 ; Diuretic DUKE1992B ; Hepatoprotective IC80=30 ug/ml CPB38:2201 ; Hypotensive ivn dog; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Tissue-Thromboplastin-Inhibitor IC50=20.8 uM X12510836 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor PM69:1125


Alcohol-Dehydrogenase-Inhibitor (diagnostic)=50 mg/kg/ivn/man M29 ; Anticolitic? JN129:1395S ; Antidiabetic EJC49S:S145 ; Antidiarrheic JN129:1395S ; Antiobesity? JN129:1395S ; Antiosteoporotic? JN129:1395S ; Bifidogenic EJC49S:S145 ; Chemopreventive (Breast Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Chemopreventive (Colon Cancer) JN129:1395S ; Expectorant PED ; Gastrostimulant EJC49S:S145 ; Hypocholesterolemic EJC49S:S145 ; Hypoglycemic EJC49S:S145 ; Immunostimulant; Laxative JN129:1395S ; Lipolytic; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Probiotigenic JN129:1395S


No activity reported.

LOGANIN Leaf: DUKE1992A Root: DUKE1992A

Antiedemic Indomethacin BRU ; Antiinflammatory 1/2-1/5 indomethacin; Cathartic ED50=540 mg/kg W&W ; Laxative PJB1(2):277


Antiangiogenic 30-50 ug/ml PR4:341 ; AntiEBV JNP65:645 ; Antiedemic PM60:516 ; Antiflu JNP67:344 ; Antihyperglycemic JBH ; Antiinflammatory 1/3 Indomethacin PM60:516 ; Antilithic 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antimalarial IC50=46.8 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antioxalate 25 mg/kg/day FT67:121 ; Antioxidant FT67:121 ; Antiperoxidant FT67:121 ; Antiprostaglandin X11732756 ; Antirheumatic DUKE1992B ; Antitumor JBH ; Antiurethrotic DUKE1992B ; Antiviral JNP67:344 ; Cytotoxic 50-500 ppm DUKE1992B ; FPTase-Inhibitor IC50=65 ug/ml JNP59:658 ; Hypotensive JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; TOPO-2-Inhibitor IC50=10.4 uM JNP64:1545


Insectifuge 411 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


No activity reported.


No activity reported.


Antiatheromic 15 g/man/day HSC25:1485 ; Antibacterial DUKE1992B ; Antidiabetic 10 g/man/day/orl; Antidiarrheic M11 ; Antienteritic GAZ ; Antigallstone WAF ; Antigastritic GAZ ; Antilithic WAF ; Antimetastatic PIL ; Antimutagenic PM65:395 ; Antiobesity JNU ; Antitumor (Colon) PM65:395 ; Antitumor (Prostate) PIL ; Antitussive DUKE1992B ; Antiulcer DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Chemopreventive PM65:395 ; Demulcent DUKE1992B ; Fungicide LAF ; Hemostat DUKE1992B ; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypoglycemic JNU ; Peristaltic DUKE1992B ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


No activity reported.


Antibacterial M29 ; Antiseptic M11 ; FLavor PJB1(2):280 ; Perfumery M11 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Sedative BVC:162


No activity reported.


Antiprostatotic; Hypocholesterolemic MPP


Allergenic JAF49:5674 ; Alpha-Glucosidase-Inhibitor X16500886 ; Antiarrhythmic ACM:407 ; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial PR4(5):198 ; Anticlastogen X9025787 ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antiherpetic DUKE1992B ; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antiischemic JBH ; AntiLegionella YAK122:487 ; Antileukemic X10856425 ; Antimelanogenic ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Antimutagenic X9025787 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/2 BHT 10 x alpha-tocopherol JAF49:5674 2/3 quercetin; Antiperoxidant IC50=>100 uM PM57:A54 IC75=200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular JAF45:1039 ; Antiseptic YAK122:487 ; Antispasmodic EC50=4.6-17 uM PR4(2):73 ; Antitumor (Colon) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Mouth) JAF49:5674 ; Antitumor (Skin) JAF49:5674 ; Antitussive ACM:200 ; Antiviral JAF45:1039 ; Apoptotic X10856425 ; Carcinogenic JAF49:5674 ; Cardioprotective X16407799 ; Chemopreventive 100 ppm orl rat JAF49:5674 ; Fungicide 500 ug/ml 438 ; Glutathione-Depleting JAF49:5674 ; Hepatotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Immunostimulant EMP1:124 ; Nephrotoxic JAF49:5674 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phagocytotic EMP1:124 ; Prostaglandigenic RWG27 ; Secretogogue CAN ; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID60=0.5 uM/ml JAF51:6953 ; Ubiquiot JBH


No activity reported.


5-HT-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Aldehyde-Oxidase-Inhibitor IC27-52=10 uM X16394541 ; Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM 4 ug/ml SKN43:99 ; Allelochemic SN149:389 ; Antiaggregant ED50=33 nmol/kg iv; Antiallergic FT73:557 ; Antiapoplectic DUKE1992B ; Antiatherogenic; Antiatherosclerotic JAF51:6452 ; Antibacterial JBH ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticapillary-Fragility 20-100 mg orl man M7 ; Anticataract DUKE1992B ; Anticlastogen; Anticonvulsant KCH ; AntiCVI 270 mg/man/day; Antidementia BRU ; Antidermatitic BIS ; Antidiabetic CPB38:297 ; Antiedemic 270 mg/day orl man; Antierythemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant; Antiglaucomic 60 mg/day WER ; Antihematuric DUKE1992B ; Antihemorrhoidal; Antihepatotoxic TOX ; Antiherpetic EMP5:198 ; Antihistaminic DUKE1992B ; Antihypertensive KCH ; Antiinflammatory 20 mg/kg; Antimalarial IC50=>100 ug/ml JE15:204 ; Antimelanomic X16104801 ; Antimetastatic; Antimutagenic ID50=2-5 nM; Antinephritic DUKE1992B ; Antinociceptive PR14:401 ; Antioxidant IC28=30 ppm IC50=120 uM PC27:972 IC54=10 uM JMF5:1 ; Antiperoxidant IC50=10-20 uM; Antiplatelet FT73:557 ; Antiproliferant 50-75 uM/l; Antiprotozoal FT73:557 ; Antipurpuric DUKE1992B ; Antiradicular 9 x quercetin; Antispasmodic; Antisunburn PM61:510 ; Antithrombogenic EC50=500 nM X3101704 ; Antithyroid IC50=68 uM X12065212 ; Antitrypanosomic 100 mg/kg PM57:A44 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter; Antiulcer PR14:581 ; Antivaricose; Antiviral; Apoptotic 75 uM/l X12010246 ; cAMP-Phosphodiesterase-Inhibitor PAM ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Capillariprotective M11 ; Catabolic AFR27:173 ; Chemopreventive; Cytoprotective IC50=3 uM X1559614 ; Estrogenic? EMP6:189 ; Hemostat; Hepatomagenic 20,000 ppm (diet) rat PCF ; Hepatoprotective 20 mg/kg rat FT73:557 ; Hypocholesterolemic KCH ; Hypotensive LAF ; Immunomodulator FT73:557 ; Insecticide TOX ; Insectiphile JBH ; Juvabional 382 ; Larvistat IC95=4,000-8,000 ppm diet 438 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor IC75=2.5 mM JAF38:688 ; Mutagenic EMP6:189 ; Myoprotective FT73:557 ; Myorelaxant EMP6:189 ; Oviposition-Stimulant JBH ; PAF-Inhibitor X12584792 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Protisticide FT73:557 ; Radioprotective JAF48:1738 ; Sunscreen PM61:510 ; Topoisomerase-II-Inhibitor IC50=1 ug/ml AAC41:992 ; Vasodilator FT73:557 ; Vasopressor DUKE1992B


No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow CPB43:1385 ; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM 438 ; Analgesic PM56(6):595 ; Anesthetic HDN ; Antiadrenergic HDN ; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm X11714299 IC50=65 uM X11714299 ; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic DUKE1992B ; Antibacterial JBH ; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic DUKE1992B ; Antifeedant 382 ; Antihepatotoxic BIS ; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear PM56(6):504 ; Antileukotrienogenic PM56(6):595 ; Antimutagenic MAB ; Antioxidant PH2 ; Antiproliferant X11749777 ; Antiprostaglandin RWG27 ; Antiseptic FT1990:503 ; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml DUKE1992B ; Apoptotic X11749777 ; Bronchorelaxant KCH ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Cholagogue WIC ; Choleretic KCH ; CNS-Depressant KCH ; CNS-Stimulant WBB ; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM BIOSIS'96 ; Hepatoprotective WIC ; Herbicide JBH ; Hypoglycemic EMP6:165 ; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor X11575966 ; Musculotropic WIC ; Myorelaxant; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Phytoalexin PC29(6):1789 ; Phytohormonal JBH ; Uterosedative 411


No activity reported.


Antibacterial JBH ; Antihepatotoxic JBH ; Antioxidant IC27=30 ppm PCF:221 ; Antiperoxynitrite IC39=5 uM JAF50:5884 IC60=20 uM JAF50:5884 IC75=100 uM JAF50:5884 ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Fungicide JBH ; Pesticide DUKE1992B


Antibacillus X12809366 ; Antibacterial X12809366 ; Antiescherichic X12809366 ; Antihepatotic X1842007 ; Antiseptic X12809366 ; Antistaphylococcic X12809366 ; Artemicide 34 ug/ml X12809366 ; Hepatoprotective 25-50 mg/kg X9396160 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B

TANNIN Plant 30,000 ppm; DUKE1992A

Anthelmintic JNP59:205 ; Antibacterial JE26:74 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Anticariogenic JNP59:205 ; Antidiarrheic DUKE1992B ; Antidysenteric DUKE1992B ; Antihepatotoxic JNP59:205 ; AntiHIV JNP59:205 ; Antihypertensive JNP59:205 ; Antilipolytic JNP59:205 ; Antimutagenic DUKE1992B ; Antinephritic CPB38:1049 ; Antiophidic EMP5:363 ; Antioxidant 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 IC50=1.44 ug/ml CPB38:1051 ; Antiradicular 1/3 quercetin JAF47:397 500 mg/kg/day orl mus CPB38:1049 ; Antirenitic CPB38:1049 ; Antitumor; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Antiulcer JNP59:205 ; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive HG22:14 ; Carcinogenic AHP156 ; Chelator JNP59:205 ; Cyclooxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Glucosyl-Transferase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Hepatoprotective DUKE1992B ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Lipoxygenase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; MAO-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Ornithine-Decarboxylase-Inhibitor JNP59:205 ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Psychotropic CPB38:1049 ; Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor JNP59:205


No activity reported.


Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 100 uM/l PHM1:145 ; Allelopathic JAF50:4567 ; Anthelmintic JBH ; Antibacterial 1.5-15 mg/ml 452 ; Anticancer JAF47:397 ; Antifatigue; Antiinflammatory JBH ; Antileukemic IC50=25-56 ug/ml AJC31:37 ; Antioxidant 1/3 BHA JAF50:889 IC21=30 ppm; Antiperoxidant IC15-65=100-200 ug/ml JAF50:2993 ; Antiradicular 7 x quercetin JAF47:397 ; Antiseptic X15712986 ; Antisickling PM56(6):681 ; Antitumor JAF47:397 ; Antitumor-Promoter JAF47:397 ; Ascaricide DUKE1992B ; Cancer-Preventive 525 ; Choleretic DUKE1992B ; Fungicide X15712986 ; Immunosuppressant RWG29 ; Laxative MPI ; Pesticide DUKE1992B ; Ubiquiot JBH

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



382: Jacobson, M., Glossary of Plant-Derived Insect Deterrents, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, 213 p, 1990.

411: Williamson, E. M. and Evans, F. J., Potter's New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations, Revised Ed., Saffron Walden, the C. W. Daniel Co., Ltd., Essex UK, 362 pp, 1988, reprint 1989.

438: Lydon, J. & Duke, S., The potential of pesticides from plants, pp. 1-41 in Craker, L. & Simon, J., eds, Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, & Pharmacology, v. 4, Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1989, 267pp.

452: Recio, M. C., Rios, J. L., and Villar, A., A review of some antimicrobial compounds isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature 1978-1988, Phytotherapy Research, 3(4), 1989, 117-125.

505: Jim Duke's personal files.

525: Stitt, P. A. Why George Should Eat Broccoli. Dougherty Co, Milwaukee, WI, 1990, 399 pp.

AAC41:992: Bernard, F. X., Sable, S., Cameron, B., Provost, J., Desnottes, J. F., Crouzet, J., Blanche, F. 1997. Glycosylated Flavones as Selective Inhibitors of Topoisomerase IV. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 41: 992-998.

AB68:195: Angewandte Botanik 68(5/6)=1994. Page 195.

ACM:200: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 200.

ACM:210: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 210.

ACM:407: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 407.

ACM:69: Advance in Chinese Medicinal Materials Research. 1985. Eds. H. M. Chang, H. W. Yeung, W. -W. Tso and A. Koo. World Scientific Publishing Co., Philadelphia Pa., page 69.

ACS661:230: Jim Duke's personal files

AFR27:173: Jim Duke's personal files

AHP156: Jim Duke's personal files

AJC31:37: Chiang, L. C., Chiang, W., Chang, M. Y., Ng, L. T., Lin, C. C. 2003. Antileukemic activity of selected natural products in Taiwan. Am J Chin Med, 31(1):37-46.

ARC: Aloe Research Council - Duke writeup of non-peer reviewd book by Coats and draft by Henry Note: Most ARC numerical data were in mg/dl. I know of no other plant where zinc is more prevalent than other minerals and protein. These data should be viewed as suspect.

AYL: Leung, A.Y., Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.

BIOSIS'96: Jim Duke's personal files

BIS: Bisset, N.G., ed. 1994. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. 566 pp. Note: English translation of Wichtl, 1984,1989).

BO2: Jim Duke's personal files

BPCC: Biosyn. Prod. Cancer Chemotherapy (Petit et al)

BRU: Bruneton, J. 1999. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2nd Ed. Lavoisier Publishing, Paris. 1119 pp.

BVC:162: Buchbauer et al, e.g.Buchbauer et al,1993.Therapeutic properties of essential oils and fragrances. Chap.12 in Teranishi,R, Buttery,R.G and Sugisawa,H. Eds. Bioactive Volatile Compounds from Plants. ACS Symposium Series 525. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington DC

CAN: Newall, C. A., Anderson, L. A. and Phillipson, J. D. 1996. Herbal Medicine - A Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London. 296pp.

CAN210: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR3/4/91:16: Jim Duke's personal files

CMR9/10/92: Chemical Marketing Reporter; a weekly tabloid, 9/10/92.

CPB38:1049: Uchida, U., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Mori, A., Nonaka, G-i., Nishioka, I., and Zaki, M. 1989. Prolongation of Life Span of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) Ingesting Persimmon Tannin. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(4): 1049-1052, 1990.

CPB38:1051: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:1620: Ozaki, Y. and Ma, J-P. 1989. Inhibitory Effects of Tetramethylpyrazine and Ferulic Acid on Spontaneous Movement of Rat Uterus in Situ. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(6): 1620-1623, 1990.

CPB38:1623: Jim Duke's personal files

CPB38:2201: Mayumi Ito (nee Someya), et al. 1990. Hepatoprotective Compounds from Canarium album and Euphorbia nematocypha. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(8): 2201-2203, 1990.

CPB38:297: Jin, G-Z., Yamagata, Y., and Tomita, K.-i. 1989. Structure of Rutin Pentamethanol. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 38(2): 297-300, 1990.

CPB43:1385: Okada,Y,et al.1995.Search for Naturally Occurring Substances to Prevent the Complications of Diabetes.II.Inhibitory Effect of Coumarin and Flavonoid Derivatives on Bovine Lens Aldose Reductase and Rabbit Platelet Aggregation.Chem Pharm Bull43(8):1385-1387

CPB47:340: Yoshikawa, M., et al. 1999. Medicinal Flowers. I. Aldose Reductase Inhibitors and Three New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenes, Kikkanols A, B, and C, From the Flowers of Chrysanthemum inducum L. Chem Pharm Bull, 47(3): 340-345.

CR48:5941: Cancer Research, 48: 5941.

DAS: Davies, S., and Stewart, A. 1990. Nutritional Medicine. Avon Books, New York. 509pp.

DUKE1992A: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

DUKE1992B: Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of biologically active phytochemicals and their activities. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.

EB48:111: Tunon, H., Thorsell, W., and Bohlin, L. 1993. Mosquito Repelling Activity of Compounds Occurring in Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae). Economic Botany 48(2): 111-120, 1994.

EJC49S:S145: Jim Duke's personal files

EMP1:124: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 1: 124.

EMP5:194: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 194.

EMP5:198: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 198.

EMP5:207: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 207.

EMP5:363: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 5: 363.

EMP6:165: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 165

EMP6:189: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 189.

EMP6:235: Economic & Medicinal Plant Research, 6: 235.

FT1990:501: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:503: Jim Duke's personal files

FT1990:509: Jim Duke's personal files

FT64:134: Lazarova*, G., Kostova, I., Neychev, H. 1992. Photodynamic damage prevention by some hydroxycoumarins. Fitoterapia 64(2): 134-136, 1993.

FT65(2):101: Jim Duke's personal files

FT67:121: Jim Duke's personal files

FT73:557: Jim Duke's personal files

GAZ: Jim Duke's personal files

HDN: Neuwinger, H. D. 1996. African Ethnobotany - Poisons and Drugs. Chapman & Hall, New York. 941 pp.

HG22:14: HerbalGram No. 22 - Spring 1990, page 14.

HH1:5: Jim Duke's personal files

HH2: Hansel, R., Keller, K., Rimpler, H., and Schneider, G. eds. 1992. Hager's Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, Drogen (A-D), 1209 pp., 1993 (E-O), 970 pp., 1994 (P-Z), 1196 pp. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

HSC25:1485: Cerda, J.J. Pectin in Health and Disease. HortScience, 25(12): 1485, 1990.

HSC25:1495: Simon, P.W. Carrots and Other Horticultural Crops as a Source of Provitamin A Carotenes. HortScience, 25(12): 1495, 1990.

JA6(4):40: Jim Duke's personal files.

JAF38:493: Lugemwa, F.N., Huang, F-Y., Bentley, M.D., Mendel, M.J., and Alford, A.R. 1990. A Heliothis zea Antifeedant from the Abundant Birchbark Triterpene Betulin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38(2): 493-494.

JAF38:494: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF38:688: Oszmianski, J. and Lee, C.Y. 1990. Inhibitory Effect of Phenolics on Carotene Bleaching in Vegetables. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 688-690.

JAF38:805: Friedman, M. and Dao, L. 1990. Effect of Autoclaving and Conventional and Microwave Baking on the Ergot Alkaloid and Chlorogenic Acid Contents of Morning Glory (Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cv.) Heavenly Blue Seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 38: 805-808.

JAF44:2057: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF44:2096: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1039: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:1523: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF45:661: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF47:397: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:1738: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF48:235: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:3653: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF49:5674: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:2993: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:3718: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:4567: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:5884: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:7022: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:850: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF50:889: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6452: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF51:6953: Jim Duke's personal files

JAF53:3882: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC34:409: Jim Duke's personal files

JAFC45:632: Jim Duke's personal files

JAR10:7: Jim Duke's personal files

JBH: Jeffery B. Harborne and H. Baxter, eds. 1983. Phytochemical Dictionary. A Handbook of Bioactive Compounds from Plants. Taylor & Frost, London. 791 pp.

JCE17:865: Holappa, L.D., and Blum*, U. 1991. Effects of Exogenously Applied Ferulic Acid, a Potential Allelopathic Compound, on Leaf Growth, Water Utilization, and Endogenous Abscisic Acid Levels of Tomato, Cucumber, and Bean. J. of Chemical Ecology, 17(5): 865.

JCE26:315: Jim Duke's personal files

JE15:204: Khalid, S.A., Farouk, A., Geary**, T.G., and Jensen, J.B. 1985. Potential Antimalarial Candidates From African Plants: An In Vitro Approach Using Plasmodium falciparum*. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15: 201-209, 1986.

JE26:74: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:76: Jim Duke's personal files

JE26:86: Jim Duke's personal files

JMF5:1: Jim Duke's personal files

JN127:893S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN129:1395S: Jim Duke's personal files

JN133:1302: Jim Duke's personal files

JNM1:10: Jim Duke's personal files.

JNP59:205: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP59:658: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP61:1090: Kashiwada, Y., et. al. 1998. Anti-AIDS Agents. 30. Anti-HIV Activity of Oleanolic Acid, Pomolic Acid, and Structurally Related Triterpenoids. J. Nat. Prod., 61 (9): 1090-1095.

JNP64:1545: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:1517: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP65:645: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP66:263: Jim Duke's personal files

JNP67:344: Jim Duke's personal files

JNU: Joseph, J., Nadeau, D. and Underwood, A. 2001. The Color Code. Hyperion, NY.

K16299: Jim Duke's personal files

KCH: Huang, K. C. 1993. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL 388 pp.

KEN: Jim Duke's personal files

LAF: Leung, A. Y. and Foster, S. 1995. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 649 pp.

M&R317: Jim Duke's personal files

M&R610: Jim Duke's personal files

M11: Merck 11th Edition

M29: Martindale's 29th

M7: Merck 7th Ed.

MAB: Mills, Simon and Bone, Kerry. 2000. Phytotherapy. Churchill Livinston, Edinburgh.

MAR: Martindale's 28th

MES: Jim Duke's personal files

MPI: =ICMR(Indian Council of Medical Research).1976.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.1.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambridge Printing Works, New Delhi.487 pp;ICMR.1987.Medicinal Plants of India.Vol.2.Indian Council of Med. Res.Cambr. Printing Works,New Delhi.600pp Note: (2 vols so far).

MPP: Jim Duke's personal files

NIG: Nigg, H.N. and Seigler, D.S., eds. 1992. Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture. Plenum Press, New York. 445 pp.

NP6:1: Jim Duke's personal files

NR11:S120: Jim Duke's personal files

NR54:S71: Jim Duke's personal files

NYT3/28/95: New York Times, 3/28/95.

PAL:335: Jim Duke's personal files

PAM: Pizzorno, J.E. and Murray, M.T. 1985. A Textbook of Natural Medicine. John Bastyr College Publications, Seattle, Washington (Looseleaf).

PC27:972: Jim Duke's personal files

PC27:973: Jim Duke's personal files

PC29(6):1789: Jim Duke's personal files

PC36:579: Ohnishi, M., Morishita, H., Iwahashi, H., Toda, S., Shirataki, Y., Kimura, M., and Kido, R. 1993. Inhibitory Effects of Chlorogenic Acids on Linoleic Acid Peroxidation and Haemolysis. Phytochemistry. 36(3): 579-583. 1994.

PC48:495: Dunstan, C. A., Liu, B., Welch, C. J., Perera, P., Bohlin, L. 1998. Alphitol, a Phenolic Substance from Alphitonia zizyphoides which Inhibits Prostaglandin Biosynthesis in vitro. Phytochemistry, 48(3): 495-497.

PCF: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health. Antioxidants & Cancer Prevention. Huang, M.T., Ho, C.T. and Lee, C.Y. eds. 1992. ACS Symposium Series 507.ACS, Washington 402 pp.

PCF:18: Ki Soon Rhee. Oilseed Food Ingredients Used To Minimize Oxidative Flavor Deterioration in Meat Products. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.18.

PCF:19: Hagerman, A.E. Tannin-Protein Interactions. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.19.

PCF:21: Huang, M-T., and Ferraro, T. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Cancer Prevention. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.2 p.21.

PCF:221: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:245: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:25: McEvily, A.J., Iyengar, R., and Gross, A.T. Inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase by Phenolic Compounds. Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, Ch.25.

PCF:44: Jim Duke's personal files

PCF:69: Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health, 69.

PED: Pedersen, M. 1987. Nutritional Herbology. Pederson Publishing. Bountiful, Utah. 377 pp. Note: Some quantitative data, e.g., selenium, seems inaccurate. All PED data is ZMB.

PH2: Jim Duke's personal files

PHM1:145: Jim Duke's personal files

PHYT13:2002,JAD: Jim Duke's personal files

PHZ46:156: Pharmazie, 46: 156, 1991.

PIL: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):169: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):171: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(1):177: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):264: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):270: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):272: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):277: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(2):280: Jim Duke's personal files

PJB1(3):232: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(2):173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):504: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):595: Jim Duke's personal files

PM56(6):681: Planta Medica, 56(6): 681, 1990.

PM56:173: Jim Duke's personal files

PM57:A131: Planta Medica, 57: A131, 1991.

PM57:A133: Schussler, M., Fricke, U., Nikolov, N., and Holzl, J. 1991. Comparison of the Flavonoids Occurring in Crataegus species and Inhibition of 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Phosphodiesterase. Plant Medica 57: Suppl Issue 2. p.A-133.

PM57:A43: Planta Medica, 57: A43, 1991.

PM57:A44: Planta Medica, 57: A44, 1991.

PM57:A54: Planta Medica, 57: A54, 1991.

PM60:516: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:510: Jim Duke's personal files

PM61:9: Recio, M., et al. 1994. Investigations on the Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Triterpenoids from Diospyros leucomelas*. Planta Medica, 61: 9.

PM65:395: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:1125: Jim Duke's personal files

PM69:820: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:49: Jim Duke's personal files

PMP23:51: Jim Duke's personal files

POP:270: Jim Duke's personal files

PPL7:187: Jim Duke's personal files

PR13:115: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:401: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:561: Jim Duke's personal files

PR14:581: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4(2):73: Ortiz de Urbina, J.J., Martin, M.L., Sevilla, M.A., Montero, M.J., Carron, R., and San Roman, L. Antispasmodic Activity on Rat Smooth Muscle of Polyphenol Compounds Caffeic and Protocathechic Acids. Phytotherapy Research 4(2): 73, 1990.

PR4(5):198: Lamikanra, A., Ogundaini, A.O., and Ogungbamila*, F.O. Antibacterial Constituents of Alchornea cordifolia Leaves. Phytotherapy Research 4(5): 198.

PR4:341: Jim Duke's personal files

PR4:73: Phytotherapy Research, 4: 73.

RJH: R.J. Hixtable (Huxtable, R.J. (as T. Max). 1992. This and That:The Essential Pharmacology of Herbs and Spices. Tips 13:15-20 Huxtable, R.J. 1992b. The Myth of Benficent Nature. The Risk of Herbal Preparations. Anns. Intern. Med. 117(2):165-6; Huxtable, R.

RWG17: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG27: Jim Duke's personal files

RWG29: Jim Duke's personal files

SKN43:99: Ichikawa, K., et al. 1991. Isolation and Structure Determination of Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Traditional Thai Medicine, and Syntheses of Their Derivatives. Sankyo Kenkyusho Nempo, 43: 99-110.

SN149:389: Jim Duke's personal files

SN160:282: Jim Duke's personal files

SYN-X: Challem, J., Berkson, Burt, and Smith, Melissa Dianne. 2000. Syndrome X - The complete nutritional program to prevent and reservse insulin resistance. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 272 pp. $24.95

TE2: Jim Duke's personal files

TOX: Keeler, R.F. and Tu, A.T. eds. 1991. Toxicology of Plant and Fungal Compounds. (Handbook of Natural Toxins Vol. 6) Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY. 665 pp.

V&D: Vlietinck, A.J. and Dommisse, R.A. eds. 1985. Advances in Medicinal Plant Research. Wiss. Verlag. Stuttgart.

V&E: Jim Duke's personal files.

W&W: Wagner & Wolff, eds. 1977. New Natural Products (RS164. I56. 176)

WAF: Jim Duke's personal files

WBB: Watt, J.M. and Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G. 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. Edinburg & London. 1457 pp.

WER: Werbach, M. 1993. Healing with Food. Harper Collins, New York, 443 pp.

WIC: Wichtl, M. 1984. Teedrogen. Ein Handbuch fur Apotheker und Arzte. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellscharft. mbH Stuttgart. 393 pp.

X10630117: Jim Duke's personal files

X10856425: Jim Duke's personal files

X11199135: Jim Duke's personal files

X11315752: Jim Duke's personal files

X11413687: Jim Duke's personal files

X11417917: Jim Duke's personal files

X11575966: Jim Duke's personal files

X11684183: Jim Duke's personal files

X11714299: Jim Duke's personal files

X11732756: Jim Duke's personal files

X11749777: Jim Duke's personal files

X12010246: Jim Duke's personal files

X12065212: Jim Duke's personal files

X12510836: Jim Duke's personal files

X12584792: Jim Duke's personal files

X12802204: Jim Duke's personal files

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YHH25:412: Xu, L. N., Yu, W. G., Tian, J. Y., Liu, Q. Y. 1990. Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Arachidonic Acid Metabolism. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 25(6): 412-416.

YHH30:621: Huang, C., Tunon, H., Bohlin, L. 1995. Anti-Inflammatory Compounds Isolated from Menyanthes trifoliata L. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao, 30(8): 621-626.