Bioaugmentation process of secondary effluents for reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
J Water Health. 2016 Oct;14(5):780-795. Bioaugmentation process of secondary effluents for reduction of pathogens, heavy metals and antibiotics. Al-Gheethi AA1, Mohamed RM1, Efaq AN2, Norli I2, Abd Halid A3, Amir HK1, Ab Kadir MO2.
The study probed into reducing faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria, heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics, from four types of secondary effluents by bioaugmentation process, which was conducted with Bacillus subtilis strain at 45 °C.
As a result, faecal indicators and pathogenic bacteria were reduced due to the effect of thermal treatment process (45 °C), while the removal of heavy metals and β-lactam antibiotics was performed through the functions of bioaccumulation and biodegradation processes of B. subtilis.
Faecal coliform met the guidelines outlined by WHO and US EPA standards after 4 and 16 days, respectively. Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were reduced to below the detection limits without renewed growth in the final effluents determined by using a culture-based method. Furthermore, 13.5% and 56.1% of cephalexin had been removed, respectively, from secondary effluents containing 1 g of cephalexin L-1 (secondary effluent 3), as well as 1 g of cephalexin L-1 and 10 mg of Ni2+ L-1 (secondary effluent 4) after 16 days.
The treatment process, eventually, successfully removed 96.6% and 66.3% of Ni2+ ions from the secondary effluents containing 10 mg of Ni2+ L-1 (secondary effluent 2) and E4, respectively. The bioaugmentation process improved the quality of secondary effluents.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Heavy metal poisoning