Protective effect of vanilloids against chemical stress on the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum
Type of Spiritual Experience
Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid derivative used as a flavoring agent. It is an oxidized form of vanillin. It is also an intermediate in the production of vanillin from ferulic acid.
Since ferulic acid is a natural product we have a symbiotic relationship here that is worth exploring
A description of the experience
J Environ Manage. 2013 Jul 30;124:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.03.040. Epub 2013 Apr 11.
Protective effect of vanilloids against chemical stress on the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum.
Kuhar F1, Papinutti L.
- 1Laboratorio de Micología Experimental, Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, C1428EHA Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Bioremediation of contaminated sites by biosorption of pollutants onto a wide range of materials has emerged as a promising treatment for recalcitrant aromatic compounds or heavy metals.
When adsorption occurs on living white-rot fungi mycelia, the pollutants may be degraded by ligninolytic enzymes. However, the survival of mycelia in harsh conditions is one of the drawbacks of those methodologies.
In this study, it was demonstrated that culture media supplemented with several guaiacol derivatives (vanilloids) increased the resistance of Ganoderma lucidum E47 cultures to chemical stress by enhancing the adsorptive capacity of the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM).
The toxicity of the fungicides gentian violet (GV), malachite green (MG) and clotrimazole, and the heavy metal Cadmium was noticeably diminished in fungal cultures supplemented with the guaiacol derivative vanillic acid (VA). No degradation of the tested compounds was detected.
The activity of the oxidative enzymatic systems like laccase, a well-known oxidase associated to dye degradation, was only detectable after complete growth on plates. Extremely low concentrations of VA caused a significant protective effect, radial extension of the growth halo in plates supplemented with 0.0001 mM of VA plus GV was up to 20% to that obtained in control plates (without addition of GV and VA).
Therefore, the protective effect could not be attributable to VA per se. ECMM separated from the mycelium exhibited a much higher increase in the adsorptive capacity when isolated from liquid cultures containing VA, while that obtained from unsupplemented cultures showed an almost null adsorptive capacity.
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