Some science behind the scenes
Sacred geography - citadel
A citadel is a fortress protecting a town, sometimes incorporating a castle or palace. As a part of the sacred landscape it is often a combination of a whole host of other symbolic features – the island, the wall, the levels and layers, the palace and so on. Symbolically it is closer to a pyramid than to a city.
In the physical landscape, the citadel was often a fortification with bastions and was the strongest part of the system, sometimes well inside the outer walls and bastions, but often forming part of the outer wall for the sake of economy. It was positioned to be the last line of defence should the enemy breach the other components of the fortification system. A citadel was also a term of the third part of a medieval castle, with higher walls than the rest. It was to be the last line of defence before the keep itself.
In various countries, the citadels gained a specific name such as "Kremlin" in Russia or "Alcazaba" in the Iberian Peninsula. In European cities, the term "Citadel" and "City Castle" are often used interchangeably. The Haitian citadel is the largest citadel in the Western Hemisphere, and is called Citadelle Laferrière or simply the 'Citadel' in English.
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- Commentary on the paper by Jahn, Robert G., et al; Acoustical Resonances of Assorted Ancient Structures, Technical Report PEAR 95002, Princeton University, March 1995
- Cornwall - Saint Michael's Mount
- Delos - 03 The sacred geographical features
- Eleanor C Merry - The Flaming Door - Carnac, the Messenger and the Labyrinth
- Gaudi - Professional work - 11 The Artigas Gardens
- Hernan Cortes - Aztecs and Mexica - The view from Tlatelolco
- Incas - Macchu Picchu
- Incas - Macchu Picchu - The 'citadel'
- Indus valley - Dholavira - 01 Introduction
- Indus valley - Dholavira - 03 Sacred geometry layout
- Indus valley - Dholavira - 04 Water and the step wells
- Indus valley - Mohenjo-Daro - 01 Introduction
- Indus valley - Mohenjo-Daro - 02 Layout and plan
- Indus valley - Mohenjo-Daro - 03 The Citadel
- John Michell - The View over Atlantic – The sacred geography of China
- Lagash - Sacred geography
- Malta - 01 Introduction
- Malta - 02 The Temples
- Malta - 02 The Temples detail
- Malta - 03 The 'cart tracks'
- Malta - 06 Tarxien Temples
- Malta - 08 Mnajdra Temple
- Mayan - Popol Vuh - 14 The shape shifting of Plumed Serpent
- Mesopotamian - Means of achieving spiritual experience 09 Creating a sacred geography
- Mr Bryant on the 'worship in caverns'
- Norse - Jelling
- Organisation of Pictish society – Roles - Knight - The Whitham Shield
- Persepolis - And its sacred geography 01 The Mountain
- Persepolis - And its sacred geography 02 Surroundings and cosmic egg
- Persepolis - And its sacred geography 03 Gate of All Nations
- Persepolis - And its sacred geography 05 Stairs and ladders
- Rolling Stones - Citadel
- Sacred geography – Picts – Citadels 01 – Mither Tap
- Sacred geography – Picts – Citadels 02 – Callanish
- Sacred geography – Picts – Citadels 03 – Orkney and the Brough of Birsay
- Sacred geography – Picts – Mark stones
- Sacred geography – Picts – Wheelhouses 05 - A’ Cheardach Bheag South Uist
- Susa - Ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil
- Symbols – Picts – Sacred site - Concentric circles [Complex site]
- Symbols – Picts – Sacred site - Crosses in Eggs [citadels]
- Tepe Hasanlu - aerial views
- The Ancestors - Avebury World Heritage site - Marlborough Mound
- The Ancestors - Avebury World Heritage site - Silbury Hill
- The Ancestors - Somerset - Cadbury Castle
- The Great Mound of Ching
- The Sacred geography of the Amazon basin
- Totem group – Picts – Elements - Angels and Deer [Aether]
- Totem group – Picts – Sign of Zodiac - Giant
- Totem group – Picts – Sign of Zodiac - Wolf
- Zoroastrian - Means of achieving spiritual experience - 12 Creating a sacred geography