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Quran, the

Category: Books sutras and myths

The Quran or Koran or Qur'an is the principle religious text of Islam. 

Most intellectual disciplines, including Islamic theology, philosophy, mysticism and jurisprudence, are based on the Quran. 

The description in Wikipedia has been used, for more detail please use the Wikipedia entry.

Wikipedia

The Quran [Arabic: القرآن‎, translit. al-Qurʾān], literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah). It is widely regarded as the finest work in classical Arabic literature.  The Quran is divided into chapters (Arabic: سورة‎ sūrah, plural سور suwar), which are then divided into verses (Arabic: آية‎ āyāh, plural آيات āyāt).

Muslims believe that the Quran was verbally revealed by God to the final Prophet Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel (Jibril), gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE, when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death. Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophet-hood, and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad. The word "Quran" occurs some 70 times in the text of the Quran, although different names and words are also said to be references to the Quran.

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations. Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it. These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran known today. There are, however, variant readings, with mostly minor differences in meaning.

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Biblical scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events. The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance for mankind 2:185. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.

 Hadith are additional oral and written traditions supplementing the Quran; from careful authentication they are believed to describe words and actions of Muhammad, and in some traditions also those closest to him. In most denominations of Islam, the Quran is used together with hadith to interpret sharia (Islamic) law; in a small number of denominations, only the Quran is used as a source. During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Quranic verse (ayah) is sometimes recited with a special kind of elocution reserved for this purpose, called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers.

……… Shias and Sufis as well as some other Muslim philosophers believe the meaning of the Quran is not restricted to the literal aspect. For them, it is an essential idea that the Quran also has inward [symbolic and esoteric] aspects.

Henry Corbin:
The Quran possesses an external appearance and a hidden depth, an exoteric meaning and an esoteric meaning. This esoteric meaning in turn conceals an esoteric meaning (this depth possesses a depth, after the image of the celestial Spheres, which are enclosed within each other). So it goes on for seven esoteric meanings (seven depths of hidden depth].

According to this view, it has also become evident that the inner meaning of the Quran does not eradicate or invalidate its outward meaning. ……

Commentaries dealing with the zahir (outward aspects) of the text are called tafsir, and esoteric commentaries are called ta'wil ("interpretation" or "explanation").

 

References

An online version of the Quran in both Arabic and English

We have excluded all Hadith from the site.  The reason why is provided in the section on Hadith which explains what they are and why we decided to exclude them.

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