Category: Medicines - plant based
Introduction and description
Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as needle bush, is so named because of the numerous thorns distributed along its branches.
The species grows to a height of up to 8 m (26 ft) and has a lifespan of about 25–50 years.
According to Dr Duke its recognised common name is Cassie so it is this name we have used but ……
Wikipedia – common names
Farnese wattle, dead finish, mimosa wattle, mimosa bush, prickly mimosa bush, prickly Moses, needle bush, north-west curara, sheep's briar, sponge wattle, sweet acacia, thorny acacia, thorny feather wattle, wild briar, huisache, cassie, cascalotte, cassic, mealy wattle, popinac, sweet briar, Texas huisache, aroma, (Bahamas) cashia, (Bahamas, USA) opoponax, sashaw, (Belize) Aroma amarilla, (Cuba) suntich, (Jamaica) sassie-flower, iron wood, cassie flower, honey-ball, casha tree, casha, (Virgin Islands) cassia, (Fiji) Ellington's curse, cushuh, (St. Maarten), huizache (Mexico).
The native range of V. farnesiana is uncertain. While the point of origin is Mexico and Central America, the species has a pantropical distribution incorporating northern Australia and southern Asia. It remains unclear whether the extra-American distribution is primarily natural or anthropogenic.
It is deciduous over part of its range, but evergreen in most locales.
The plant is considered a serious weed in Fiji, where locals call it Ellington's curse.
It thrives in dry, saline, or sodic soils. It is also a serious pest plant in parts of Australia, including north-west New South Wales, where it now infests thousands of acres of grazing country.
There is an irony in this, as medicinally it appears, from Dr Duke’s analyses, to be a very important plant. Yet another instance where a ‘weed’ has moved to the places it is needed.
The taxon name farnesiana is specially named after Odoardo Farnese (1573–1626) of the notable Italian Farnese family.
Some time after 1550, under the patronage of cardinal Alessandro Farnese, a number of private botanical gardens were created in Rome. Under the stewardship of the Farnese Gardens creators, this acacia was imported to Italy.
The tree had especial interest at this time and subsequently as it yields a lovely perfume derived from the flowers. The name Cassie, is used for the perfume – hence its application to the whole plant. Cassie is widely used in the perfume industry in Europe. The plant is also much favoured by bees.
Analysis of essences of the floral extract from this plant, resulted in the discovery of the sesquiterpene chemical Farnesol, named after the Farnese family, and found as a basic sterol precursor in plants, and cholesterol precursor in animals.
Not only is the plant used in perfumery, but in its native range, its leaves are used as a tamarind like flavouring for chutneys. The pods are roasted to be used in sweet and sour dishes.
Scented ointments from Cassie are made in India, however, most of the medicinal activity is based on the seeds and the bark.
Both bark and seeds are used for their tannin content. Highly tannic barks are common in general to acacias, extracts of many are used in medicine for this reason. Tannin is a chelator and is also anti-viral and anti-bacterial, as such given that illnesses are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, toxins such as heavy metals , fungi and so on, tannin is an important component.
The concentration of tannin in the seed pods, for example, is about 23%. The seeds of V. farnesiana are not toxic to humans and are a valuable food source for people throughout the plant's range. The ripe seeds are put through a press to make oil for cooking.
an anecdotal report has been made that in Brazil some people use the seeds of V. farnesiana to eliminate rabid dogs. … V. farnesiana has been used in Colombia to treat malaria, and the extract from the tree bark and leaves has shown some efficacy against the malarial pathogen Plasmodium falciparum in animal models . Indigenous Australians have used the roots and bark of the tree to treat diarrhea and diseases of the skin. The tree's leaves can also be rubbed on the skin to treat skin diseases.
Acacia farnesiana growing on Volivoli peninsula, Viti Levu, Fiji, February 2011
- Acacia honey and chrysin reduce proliferation of melanoma cells through alterations in cell cycle progression 020536
- Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats 020537
- Antimalarial activity of some Colombian medicinal plants 019355
- Dr Duke's list of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Acacia farnesiana (L.) WILLD. (Fabaceae) -- Cassie, Huisache, Opopanax, Popinac, Sweet Acacia 019354
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing ARGININE 017958
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing GLYCINE 017955
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing HISTIDINE 019061
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing PROLINE 017956
- Dr Duke's list of Plants containing SALICYLIC ACID 020467
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiadenovirus Activity 018303
- Dr Duke's list of plants with AntiADHD activity 018403
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiallergenic activity 018413
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antibrucellosic activity 018358
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (esophagus) activity 018457
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (kidney) activity 018460
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (mouth) activity 018463
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (pancreas) activity 018464
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Anticancer (prostate) activity 018465
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antichilblain activity 018366
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antidote (Aluminum) Activity 018326
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiheartburn Activity 019973
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antikeratitic Activity 019936
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antilupus activity 018440
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antimeasles activity 019577
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antimelanomic activity 024204
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with AntiMRSA activity 018379
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antipapillomic Activity from multiple chemicals 018899
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antipapillomic Activity of high potency 018898
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antiuremic activity 018429
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with Herpetifuge activity 019494
- Dr Duke's list of Plants with HIV-RT-Inhibitor Activity 018288
- Dr Duke’s list of Plants with a number of chemicals having AntiMeniere's Activity 021279
- Dr Duke’s list of Plants with high Concentrations of Chemicals with AntiMeniere's Activity 021280
- Effects of acacia honey on wound healing in various rat models 020540
- Effects of Post-Exercise Honey Drink Ingestion on Blood Glucose and Subsequent Running Performance in the Heat 020535
- Modulatory role of Acacia honey from north-west Nigeria on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats 020539
- Mrs Grieve on Acacias 020490
- Philippine Herbs Used in Small Animal Practice 021374
- Potential biological activity of acacia honey 020534