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USDA Nutrients - Fish, Mackerel

Identifier

012472

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

 

From Wikipedia

Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, from the family Scombridae, which also includes tuna and bonito. Generally mackerel are much smaller and slimmer than tuna, though in other respects they share many common characteristics. Their scales, if present at all, are extremely small.

Grilled mackerel with gooseberry sauce

Like tuna and bonito, mackerel are voracious feeders, and are swift and manoeuvrable swimmers, able to streamline themselves by retracting their fins into grooves on their body. Like other scombroids, their bodies are cylindrical with numerous finlets on the dorsal and ventral sides behind the dorsal and anal fins, but unlike the deep-bodied tuna, they are slim. Atlantic mackerel, for example, can swim at a sustained speed of 0.98 metres/sec with a burst speed of 5.5 m/s, while chub mackerel can swim at a sustained speed of 0.92 m/s with a burst speed of 2.25 m/s.

Smoked mackerel

About 21 species in the family Scombridae are commonly called mackerel. The type species for the scombroid mackerel is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus.

The term "mackerel" means "marked" or "spotted." The term mackerel derives from the Old French maquerel, c.1300, meaning a pimp or procurer. The connection is not altogether clear, but mackerel spawn enthusiastically in shoals near the coast, and medieval ideas on animal procreation were creative.

Many species are restricted in their distribution ranges, and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography. Some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in fairly shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came, in smaller schools, to suitable feeding grounds often near an area of upwelling. From there they may move offshore into deeper waters and spend the winter in relative inactivity. Other stocks migrate across oceans.

  • Atlantic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) occupy the waters off the east coast of North America from the Cape Cod area south to the Yucatan Peninsula. Its population is considered to include two fish stocks, defined by geography. As summer approaches, one stock moves in large schools north from Florida up the coast to spawn in shallow waters off the New England coast. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off Florida. The other stock migrates in large schools along the coast from Mexico to spawn in shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico off Texas. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off the Mexican coast. These stocks are managed separately, even though genetically they are identical.
  • The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a coastal species found only in the north Atlantic. The stock on the west side of the Atlantic is largely independent of the stock on the east side. The stock on the east Atlantic currently operates as three separate stocks, the southern, western and North Sea stocks, each with their own migration patterns. Some mixing of the east Atlantic stocks takes place in feeding grounds towards the north, but there is almost no mixing between the east and west Atlantic stocks.
  • The Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), is absent from the Atlantic Ocean but is widespread across both hemispheres in the Pacific, where its migration patterns are somewhat similar to those of Atlantic mackerel. In the northern hemisphere, chub mackerel migrate northwards in the summer to feeding grounds, and southwards in the winter when they spawn in relatively shallow waters. In the southern hemisphere the migrations are reversed. After spawning, some stocks migrate down the continental slope to deeper water and spend the rest of the winter in relative inactivity.
  • The Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), the most intensively harvested mackerel-like species, is found in the south Pacific from West Australia to the coasts of Chile and Peru. A sister species, the Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), is found in the north Pacific. The Chilean jack mackerel occurs along the coasts in upwelling areas, but also migrates across the open ocean. Its abundance can fluctuate markedly as ocean conditions change, and is particularly affected by the El Nino.

Mackerel are prolific broadcast spawners. Individual females lay between 300,000 and 1,500,000 eggs. Their eggs and larvae are pelagic, that is, they float free in the open sea. The larvae and juvenile mackerel feed on zooplankton.

Poached in pernod with gooseberries

As adults they have sharp teeth, and hunt small crustaceans such as copepods, as well as forage fish, shrimp and squid. In turn they are hunted by larger pelagic animals such as tuna, billfish, sea lions, sharks and pelicans. Smaller mackerel are forage fish for larger predators, including larger mackerel and Atlantic cod. Flocks of seabirds, as well as whales, dolphins, sharks and schools of larger fish such as tuna and marlin follow mackerel schools and attack them in sophisticated and cooperative ways. Mackerel is high in omega-3 oils and is intensively harvested by humans.

 

In 2009, over five millions tonnes were landed by commercial fishermen.

The flesh of mackerel spoils quickly, especially in the tropics, and can cause scombroid food poisoning. Accordingly, it should be eaten on the day of capture, unless properly refrigerated or cured. Mackerel preservation is not simple. Before the 19th-century development of canning and the widespread availability of refrigeration, salting and smoking were the principal preservation methods available. In the UK at least it is and was smoked .

A description of the experience

Full Report (All Nutrients):  15046, Fish, mackerel, Atlantic, raw   Food Group: Finfish and Shellfish Products   Scientific Name:  Scomber scombrus L.

Nutrient values and weights are for edible portion

Nutrient

Unit


Value per 100 g

Proximates

Water

g

63.55

Energy

kcal

205

Energy

kJ

858

Protein

g

18.60

Total lipid (fat)

g

13.89

Ash

g

1.35

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

0.00

Fiber, total dietary

g

0.0

Sugars, total

g

0.00

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

12

Iron, Fe

mg

1.63

Magnesium, Mg

mg

76

Phosphorus, P

mg

217

Potassium, K

mg

314

Sodium, Na

mg

90

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.63

Copper, Cu

mg

0.073

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.015

Selenium, Se

µg

44.1

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

0.4

Thiamin

mg

0.176

Riboflavin

mg

0.312

Niacin

mg

9.080

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.856

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.399

Folate, total

µg

1

Folic acid

µg

0

Folate, food

µg

1

Folate, DFE

µg

1

Choline, total

mg

65.0

Vitamin B-12

µg

8.71

Vitamin B-12, added

µg

0.00

Vitamin A, RAE

µg

50

Retinol

µg

50

Carotene, beta

µg

0

Carotene, alpha

µg

0

Cryptoxanthin, beta

µg

0

Vitamin A, IU

IU

167

Lycopene

µg

0

Lutein + zeaxanthin

µg

0

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)

mg

1.52

Vitamin E, added

mg

0.00

Vitamin D (D2 + D3)

µg

16.1

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

µg

16.1

Vitamin D

IU

643

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)

µg

5.0

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

3.257

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

5.456

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

3.350

Amino Acids

Other

Alcohol, ethyl

g

0.0

Caffeine

mg

0

Theobromine

mg

0

 

 

The source of the experience

USDA National Nutrients database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References