Suppression

Adzuki beans

Category: Food

Type

Voluntary

Introduction and description

Rice, Spinach, Adzuki Beans, Black Olives, Red Onions

The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis; from the Japanese アズキ(小豆),sometimes transliterated as azuki or aduki) is an annual vine widely grown throughout East Asia and the Himalayas for its small (approximately 5 mm) bean. The cultivars most familiar in Northeast Asia have a uniform red colour, however, white, black, grey and variously mottled varieties are also known.

 “Scientists presume Vigna angularis var. nipponensis is the progenitor”. Genetic evidence indicates that the adzuki bean first became domesticated in East Asia and later crossbred with native species in the Himalayas.

Although in Asia, the adzuki bean is used for a variety of culinary dishes, both sweet and savoury, the adzuki bean in western countries is often used as an alternative to kidney beans or black eyed beans in chilis or minced beef stews, partly because it is as tasty but for those who have allergies to the kidney bean, is a good substitute.

In East Asian cuisine, the adzuki bean is often boiled with sugar, resulting in red bean paste (an), a very common ingredient in all of these cuisines.

Background

Adzuki beans with rice, carrots and peas

The earliest known archaeological evidence of the bean comes from the Awazu-kotei Ruin (Shiga prefecture) of the Japanese mid-Jōmon period of 4000 BC, and later occurs commonly in many Jomon sites of between 4000 BC and 2000 BC in Japan. The analysis of the unearthed beans indicates that it was first cultivated in Japan during the period from 4000 BC to 2000 BC. In China and Korea, specimens from ruins date from 3000 BC to 1000 BC, and these are thought to be cultivated ones.

The name adzuki is a transliteration of the native Japanese name. Japanese also has a Chinese loanword, shōzu (小豆?), which means "small bean", its counterpart "large bean" (大豆 daizu) being the soybean.

 

In China, the corresponding name (Chinese: 小豆; pinyin: xiǎodòu) is still used in botanical or agricultural parlance. However, in everyday Chinese, the more common terms are hongdou (紅豆; hóngdòu) and chidou (赤豆; chìdòu), both meaning "red bean", because almost all Chinese cultivars are uniformly red.

The Korean name is pat (hangul: 팥), and in Vietnamese it is called đậu đỏ (literally: red bean). In some parts of India, they are referred to as "Red Chori".In Punjabi it is called "ravaa'n" and is a common ingredient of chaat. In Marathi, it is known as Lal Chavali (लाल चवळी)- literally means 'red cowpea'.

Nutritional information

 The adzuki bean is a rich source of vitamins, minerals and amino acids

USDA Nutrients database - Full Report (All Nutrients):  16002, Beans, adzuki, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt

Nutrient

Unit

Value per 100g

Water

g

66.29

Energy

kcal

128

Energy

kJ

536

Protein

g

7.52

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.10

Ash

g

1.33

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

24.77

Fiber, total dietary

g

7.3

MINERALS

 

 

Calcium, Ca

mg

28

Iron, Fe

mg

2.00

Magnesium, Mg

mg

52

Phosphorus, P

mg

168

Potassium, K

mg

532

Sodium, Na

mg

8

Zinc, Zn

mg

1.77

Copper, Cu

mg

0.298

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.573

Selenium, Se

µg

1.2

VITAMINS

 

 

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

0.0

Thiamin

mg

0.115

Riboflavin

mg

0.064

Niacin

mg

0.717

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.430

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.096

Folate, total

µg

121

Folic acid

µg

0

Folate, food

µg

121

Folate, DFE

µg

121

Vitamin B-12

µg

0.00

Vitamin A, RAE

µg

0

Retinol

µg

0

Vitamin A, IU

IU

6

Vitamin D (D2 + D3)

µg

0.0

Vitamin D

IU

0

FATTY ACIDS

 

 

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.036

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.009

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.021

AMINO ACIDS

 

 

Tryptophan

g

0.072

Threonine

g

0.255

Isoleucine

g

0.300

Leucine

g

0.632

Lysine

g

0.567

Methionine

g

0.079

Cystine

g

0.070

Phenylalanine

g

0.398

Tyrosine

g

0.224

Valine

g

0.387

Arginine

g

0.486

Histidine

g

0.198

Alanine

g

0.439

Aspartic acid

g

0.891

Glutamic acid

g

1.173

Glycine

g

0.286

Proline

g

0.331

Serine

g

0.369

Method

 

Red bean paste is used in many Chinese dishes, such as tangyuan, zongzi, mooncakes, baozi and red bean ice.

It also serves as a filling in Japanese sweets like anpan, dorayaki, imagawayaki, manjū, monaka, anmitsu, taiyaki and daifuku.

A more liquid version, using adzuki beans boiled with sugar and a pinch of salt, produces a sweet dish called red bean soup. Adzuki beans are also commonly eaten sprouted, or boiled in a hot, tea-like drink. Some Asian cultures enjoy red bean paste as a filling or topping for various kinds of waffles, pastries, baked buns or biscuits.

In Japan, rice with adzuki beans (赤飯; sekihan) is traditionally cooked for auspicious occasions. Adzuki beans are also used to produce amanattō, and as a popular flavour of ice cream.

In contrast, adzuki beans are extensively used in western diets in usually beef mince based stews.

Adzuki bean and Kabocha squash stew

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