Suppression

Rye

Category: Food

Type

Voluntary

Introduction and description

 

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass and a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae), closely related to barley (Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, and some vodkas. It can also be eaten whole, either as boiled rye berries, or by being rolled, similar to rolled oats.

Gluten is a protein in wheat (all kinds, including spelt, Kamut® khorasan, einkorn and farro/emmer), barley, rye and triticale (a rye/wheat hybrid).  As such anyone who is a celiac or just gluten intolerant is not able to eat rye.

Distribution

Rye in the UK [my little joke]

Rye is thought to have originated in Asia Minor.  It is one of a number of species that still grow wild in central and eastern Turkey, and in adjacent areas. It became a domesticated crop as long ago as the Neolithic age and has been found at a number of Neolithic sites in (Asia Minor) Turkey.  More archaeological records show that it had spread by the Bronze Age to central Europe, c. 1800–1500 BCE. By the Middle Ages, rye was being cultivated widely in Central and Eastern Europe. It served as the main bread cereal in most areas east of the French-German border and north of Hungary. In Southern Europe, it was cultivated on marginal lands.

These days, Rye is grown primarily in Eastern, Central and Northern Europe. The main rye belt stretches from northern Germany through Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Latvia into central and northern Russia. Rye is also grown in North America (Canada and the USA), in South America (Argentina, Brazil and Chile), in Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) in Turkey, in Kazakhstan and in northern China.

These days Germany is the top producer, in 2012 for example they grew 3,893,000 metric tons.  Other big growers are Poland, Russia, Belarus, China, Ukraine, Denmark, Turkey and Canada.

Cultivation

Most rye grown is “winter rye” which is planted in the autumn; the plants then develop during the springtime, and are harvested by August (in the Northern Hemisphere).

Rye grows well in much poorer soils than those necessary for most cereal grains. Thus, it is an especially valuable crop in regions where the soil has sand or peat. Rye plants also withstand cold better than other small grains do. Rye will survive with snow cover that would otherwise result in winter-kill for winter wheat.

Autumn planted rye shows fast growth. By the summer solstice, plants reach their maximum height of about a 120 cm (4 ft).  Vigorous growth suppresses even the most noxious weed competitors and rye can be grown without application of herbicides.

Rye is, however, highly susceptible to the ergot fungus. Consumption of ergot-infected rye by humans and animals results in a serious medical condition known as ergotism.

Medicinal uses and Nutrients

 

If you glance at the analysis of Dr Duke, you will see that wholegrain rye is rich in minerals and essential amino acids.  It is also high in fibre and protein.  The sample Dr Duke analysed also had trace elements of Iodine, which makes it an interesting source of Iodine for those unable to obtain sea salt.  It has Linoleic acid – good for the skin, heart, and nervous system.

There are a number of chemicals beneficial for skin complaints – PUFA, Oleic acid, Pantothenic acid, and Sulphur. Very simply put, however, rye is a good food, with a large number of nutrients.  The seed even has vitamins – vitamin B6, Niacin, Riboflavin etc.

USDA Ntrients database Full Report (All Nutrients):  20062, Rye grain

Scientific Name:  Secale cereale L.

 

Nutrient

Unit

Value per 100gms

Water 1

g

10.60

Energy

kcal

338

Energy

kJ

1414

Protein 1

g

10.34

Total lipid (fat) 1

g

1.63

Ash 1

g

1.57

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

75.86

Fiber, total dietary 1

g

15.1

Sugars, total

g

0.98

Sucrose 1 2

g

0.71

Glucose (dextrose) 1 2

g

0.16

Fructose 1 2

g

0.11

Lactose 1

g

0.00

Maltose 1

g

0.00

Galactose

g

0.00

MINERALS

 

 

Calcium, Ca 1

mg

24

Iron, Fe 1

mg

2.63

Magnesium, Mg 1

mg

110

Phosphorus, P 1

mg

332

Potassium, K 1

mg

510

Sodium, Na 1

mg

2

Zinc, Zn 1

mg

2.65

Copper, Cu 1

mg

0.367

Manganese, Mn 1

mg

2.577

Selenium, Se 1

µg

13.9

VITAMINS

 

 

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid 1

mg

0.0

Thiamin

mg

0.316

Riboflavin

mg

0.251

Niacin

mg

4.270

Pantothenic acid

mg

1.456

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.294

Folate, total a 1

µg

38

Folic acid

µg

0

Folate, food

µg

38

Folate, DFE

µg

38

Choline, total 3

mg

30.4

Betaine 3

mg

146.1

Vitamin B-12

µg

0.00

Vitamin A, RAE

µg

1

Retinol

µg

0

Carotene, beta

µg

7

Carotene, alpha

µg

0

Cryptoxanthin, beta

µg

0

Vitamin A, IU

IU

11

Lycopene

µg

0

Lutein + zeaxanthin

µg

210

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 1

mg

0.85

Vitamin E, added

mg

0.00

Vitamin D (D2 + D3)

µg

0.0

Vitamin D

IU

0

Vitamin K (phylloquinone)

µg

5.9

FATTY ACIDS

 

 

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.197

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.208

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.767

Fatty acids, total trans 1

g

0.000

Sources of Data
1ConAgra Foods, Inc. Data from ConAgra on Rye Flour 2009 , 2009  Omaha NE  
2Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Variability of the sugar content of foods , 1989  Beltsville MD  
3Nutrient Data Laboratory, ARS, USDA Choline Study, Local pickup VPI, NFNAP , 2006  Beltsville MD  

Method

Avocado and poached egg on rye toast

Rye bread, including pumpernickel, is a widely eaten food in Northern and Eastern Europe. Rye is used to make some crisp breads. Rye is also used to make alcoholic drinks, like rye whiskey and rye beer.

Haarala Hamilton’s cheese, spinach and rye tart  

A rye-flour pastry case with a creamy cottage-cheese and spinach filling, made with plenty of fresh herbs  The curds of cottage cheese stay intact so you get bursts of them as you eat. Smoked cheddar eg Godminster is excellent, as well as plain cheddar.  

For the pastry

125g rye flour

125g plain flour

150g cold butter, cut into cubes

1 egg yolk (reserve the egg white)  

For the filling

250g natural cottage cheese

300g spinach, any coarse stems removed

10g butter

1 small onion, very finely chopped

4 medium eggs, lightly beaten

200ml double cream

2 tbsp chives, chopped

3 tbsp parsley, chopped

2 tbsp chervil or dill, chopped

70g strong cheese, such as mature cheddar, grated

 

Put the flours and butter for the pastry into a food processor with  a good pinch of salt and whizz  until you have a breadcrumb-like mixture.

Add the egg yolk and whizz again until everything comes together in a ball (if it doesn’t, add about a teaspoon of very cold water water, put the mixture on to your kitchen surface and bring everything together with your hands). Wrap the dough in cling film and put it in the fridge for 30 minutes.

Tip the cottage cheese into a sieve, set over a bowl and let the excess moisture drip out (you can give it a little shake to encourage it). 

Put the spinach in a large saucepan with a couple of tablespoons of water, cover and set over a low heat for about 4 minutes. Turn the spinach over to make sure the heat gets to all sides.

Allow to cool, then squeeze all the excess water out of the leaves – between two dinner plates works well. You have to get as much moisture out as possible or it will ruin the custard in the tart. Chop roughly and season well.

Melt the butter in a large frying  pan and sauté the onion until soft. Add the spinach and cook over a medium heat for another couple  of minutes, which will help to  dry it out a bit more.

Mix together the eggs, cream, herbs, some seasoning and all  but 10g of the hard cheese.  Season again. Preheat the oven to 190C/ gas mark 5.

Roll out the pastry on a lightly floured surface and use it to line  a 23-24cm tart tin (it should be  3-4cm deep). Fill with greaseproof paper and baking beans and bake blind for 15 minutes.

Remove the paper and beans and cook for a further 10 minutes. Brush the inside of the tart case with the reserved egg white and return to the oven for another 5 minutes.

Spread the onions and spinach on to the base of the tart then spoon the cottage cheese on top. Pour on the egg and cream mixture and finally sprinkle the last bit of cheese on top.

Return to the oven and bake for 25 minutes. The filling should be golden and slightly souffléd.

Leave in the tin for about 15 minutes – the filling will continue to cook and settle,  so it’s very important to let it rest  – then serve.

 

 

Rye berry salad

Whole rye kernels are usually referred to as “rye berries.”  Rye growing in the field has an inedible hull, which must be removed before milling or eating. In rye, the starchy endosperm constitutes about 80-85% of the whole kernel, the germ 2-3% and the outer bran layers about 10-15%. While the fibre in most grains is concentrated almost solely in the bran layers, some of rye’s fibre is also in the endosperm.  This Scandinavian-inspired salad with lemon-dressed uses rye berries.

200g rye berries, soaked overnight and drained

3-4 tbsp extra-virgin olive oil

3 tbsp lemon juice

1 tbsp white balsamic vinegar

small bunch dill, roughly chopped

25g walnut halves, toasted and very roughly chopped

2 tbsp stale, coarse rye-bread crumbs

5 whole baby leeks

4 medium eggs  

For the dressing

1½ tbsp extra-virgin olive oil

4½ tbsp crème fraiche

1 tbsp white balsamic vinegar

4½ tbsp buttermilk

pinch caster sugar

about 1 tbsp finely chopped dill

 

Cook the rye grains in plenty of water for about 30 minutes.

Drain, add the oil, lemon, white balsamic and some seasoning, dill and walnuts.

Toast the rye breadcrumbs until golden.

Whisk the oil into the crème fraiche, then add all the other ingredients and season to taste.

Steam the baby leeks until tender, about 7 minutes.  put them in a bowl with seasoning, a squeeze of lemon and a drizzle of oil.

Soft boil the eggs for about 4 minutes then run some cold water over them to cool.  When cold shell.

Divide the grains between four plates. Put the leeks on top, then the eggs halved.

Serve while still warm. Spoon the buttermilk dressing over and around the salad.

Sprinkle on the rye crumbs.

 

 

 Cracked Rye

Rye chops are the rye equivalent of cracked wheat  or steel-cut oats. That is to say, the whole kernel (the rye berry) is cracked or cut into a few pieces that are quicker to cook than the completely intact rye berry. 

Rye Flakes

Rye flakes are created like rolled oats: by steaming rye berries and then rolling and drying them. You can add them to baked goods, cook them for porridge, and otherwise use as you would rolled oats.

Rye, pepper and bacon bake

Cooking oil

3 eggs

1 large pot double cream

1 teaspoon crushed garlic

4 cups cubed rye bread

3/4 cup chopped cooked bacon

I small jar roasted red peppers [drained]

1/2 cup grated Cheddar cheese

1/2 cup chopped green onions

Mustard, optional

 

Preheat oven to 350°F. Oil 8x8-inch glass baking dish.

Combine eggs, cream, & garlic beat until combined.

Add bread, bacon, peppers, cheese and green onions; toss to coat.

Place mixture in prepared dish press down lightly.

Bake 55 to 60 minutes or until knife inserted in centre comes out clean.

Serve with mustard, if desired.

 

 

Rye and oat blinis with smoked salmon and dill

Serve the blinis with smoked salmon and sour cream with chopped dill.

50g rolled oats
350ml boiling water
75g natural yoghurt
½ tsp fast-action yeast
125g rye flour
75g plain flour
½ tsp salt
2 medium eggs
1 tsp baking powder
1 small bunch fresh dill
Butter, for frying

 

Put the oats in a bowl, pour on the boiling water and leave for about 30 minutes, until the mixture has cooled down to lukewarm. Stir in the yoghurt and yeast, then mix in both flours and the salt. Leave for three to four hours.

When you're ready to cook, beat the eggs, baking powder and finely chopped dill into the batter, and add more water if needed – keep the mixture thick if you prefer yours like mini scotch pancakes, or thinner if you like them more like a French-style crêpe.

Heat butter in a frying pan until it sizzles, spread the melted butter all over the surface of the pan.

Spoon a little of the batter mix into the pan to check both the temperature and the batter's consistency: you want it just to colour on the base when the top is almost set.

If you're content with both, cook your blinis, carefully flipping them over halfway through cooking, and keep the cooked ones warm while you get on with making the rest.

 

Carrot , sunflower seed and rye buns

Good with soup, for breakfast, for tea ……

300ml (ish) luke warm water

15g fresh yeast or 1.5 tsp dry yeast

Drizzle of honey

250g rye flour

150g plain flour

1.5 carrots – grated

Handful sunflower seeds or more

Salt

1 tbsp olive oil

 

Pour luke warm water into a big bowl and dissolve the yeast – fresh or dry – in it with a wooden spoon

Drizzle honey in and stir

Add the flour – both types – stir to combine. What you want is a dough that is sticky but not runny. It must not be too dry. So add the flour slowly and stir as you go.

Add the grated carrot and seeds, salt and olive oil

Put a lid or tea towel over the bowl and leave in a cool place.

The day after, the dough will have risen and be spongy, it may also smell slightly sour and yeasty.

Drop balls of the batter onto a greased baking tray with a wooden spoon

Pop in a cold oven, turn it to 225C and bake for 30-35 minutes.

Let cool for about 10 minutes before eating

 

 

 

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