Introduction and description
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
They are often used for obstructive lung diseases, of which asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] are the most common conditions. They are often prescribed, but are of unproven efficacy in restrictive lung diseases.
Bronchodilators are either short-acting or long-acting.
Short-acting medications provide quick or "rescue" relief from acute bronchoconstriction. Long-acting bronchodilators are intended to prevent symptoms.
In effect they are not a cure, they simply control existing symptoms. In this respect it may be helpful to read the sections on asthma and allergies, COPD, and lung diseases. In these sections there are indications on the causes of all these diseases. It is better in the long run to seek the cause and address it to find a cure.
Types of bronchodilators
There are three main types of bronchodilators acting on different receptors,
- Adrenoreceptor agonists - β2-agonists (short- and long-acting).
- Anticholinergics – these are only short acting
- Theophylline (long-acting) - theophylline is naturally present in certain foods, but the pharmaceutical industry have extracted it and sell it as a drug
All these drugs treat the symptoms and not the cause of the disease. All have produced hallucinations.
A note on Leukotrine antagonists - Leukotrine antagonists are not strictly speaking bronchodilators, and we have moved them into their own section as they are a form of immunosuppressant. They inhibit the action of leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are fatty compounds produced by the immune system that, in their attempts to get us to expel the pathogen causing the lung problems, constrict the bronchioles so that the pathogen does not get into the blood stream, and promote mucus secretion so that we cough it out with the mucus. The wisdom of inhibiting this reaction is discussed in the section on Immunosuppressants - Leukotriene antagonists.
Using the Adverse drug reports submitted by doctors to SEDA and the FDA and compiled on the eHealthme website, we find, taking a few typical drugs in this class, the following:
Most common Levalbuterol Hydrochloride side effects:
- Pneumonia (55 reports)
- Depression (32 reports)
- Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (27 reports)
- Head Injury (26 reports)
- Acute Kidney Failure (26 reports)
- Anaemia (24 reports)
- Hypotension (23 reports)
- Fatigue (22 reports)
- Weight Decreased (21 reports)
- Pleural Effusion (21 reports)
It is interesting that one of the side effects of this drug is COPD, and that from the list above the vasodilation appears not to be restricted to just the lungs, but appears to be around the whole body resulting in the hypotension, fatigue and presumably the light headedness leading to falls and head injuries. There are also indications from this list that the original pathogen causing the asthma or breathlessness, for example the viruses or bacteria, was allowed to gain a hold and caused pneumonia and 'pleural effusions'. In effect the symptoms were suppressed, but the cause was not investigated.
If we now compare with another drug - Maxair and look at the most common Maxair side effects as compiled on eHealthme:
- Drug Ineffective (222 reports)
- Headache (182 reports)
- Nausea (174 reports)
- Tremor (169 reports)
- Chest Pain (156 reports)
- Breathing Difficulty (154 reports)
- Asthma (143 reports)
- Cough (142 reports)
- Nervousness (132 reports)
- Weakness (128 reports)
A not dissimilar picture emerges. The drug is essentially ineffective because the pathogen itself has not been identified and handled and there appear to be symptoms reminiscent of the overdose effects of amphetamines ad stimulants.
If we look at an example drug based on Ephedrine, the side effects are slightly different. Here the most common Bronkaid mist side effects are:
- Acute Myocardial Infarction (2 reports)
- Balance Disorder (2 reports)
- Tremor (2 reports)
- Gait Disturbance (2 reports)
- Multiple Sclerosis Relapse (2 reports)
- Stress And Anxiety
- Diabetic Complication in
- Numbness And Tingling
Here, the stimulant effects of ephedrine are very evident.
If we now take the ultimate spiritual experience of all - death - and again using the figures from eHealthme compiled from ADRs from doctors submitted to the FDA and SEDA, we find the following:
Salbutamol and all its various trade names
- Albuterol - On Aug, 16, 2015: 54,133 people reported to have side effects when taking Albuterol. Among them, 1,136 people (2.10%) have Death.
- Albuterol sulfate - On Aug, 6, 2015: 8,724 people reported to have side effects when taking Albuterol sulfate. Among them, 208 people (2.38%) have Death
- Albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide - On Aug, 28, 2015: 543 people reported to have side effects when taking Albuterol sulfate and ipratropium bromide. Among them, 20 people (3.68%) have Death
- Proventil - On Aug, 1, 2015: 8,220 people reported to have side effects when taking Proventil. Among them, 124 people (1.51%) have Death
- Proventil-hfa - On Aug, 28, 2015: 307 people reported to have side effects when taking Proventil-hfa. Among them, 12 people (3.91%) have Death
- Ventolin - On Aug, 11, 2015: 14,104 people reported to have side effects when taking Ventolin. Among them, 333 people (2.36%) have Death
- Ventolin hfa - On Aug, 28, 2015: 254 people reported to have side effects when taking Ventolin hfa. Among them, 6 people (2.36%) have Death
Levosalbutamol and its trade names
- Levalbuterol - On Aug, 28, 2015: 152 people reported to have side effects when taking Levalbuterol hydrochloride. Among them, 9 people (5.92%) have Death
- Xopenex - On Aug, 28, 2015: 3,638 people reported to have side effects when taking Xopenex. Among them, 98 people (2.69%) have Death.
- Xopenex hfa - On Aug, 3, 2015: 272 people reported to have side effects when taking Xopenex hfa. Among them, 1 people (0.37%) has Death
Maxair - On Aug, 22, 2015: 2,529 people reported to have side effects when taking Maxair. Among them, 20 people (0.79%) have Death.
Primatene Mist [now withdrawn from the market and replaced by Asthmanefrin] - On Aug, 20, 2015: 480 people reported to have side effects when taking Primatene mist. Among them, 21 people (4.38%) have Death
Terbutaline and its trade names
- Bricanyl - On Aug, 28, 2015: 2,121 people reported to have side effects when taking Bricanyl. Among them, 49 people (2.31%) have Death
- Brethine - On Aug, 28, 2015: 392 people reported to have side effects when taking Brethine. Among them, 2 people (0.51%) have Death
- Terbutaline - On Aug, 28, 2015: 1,407 people reported to have side effects when taking Terbutaline sulfate. Among them, 9 people (0.64%) have Death
Fenoterol - On Aug, 28, 2015: 211 people reported to have side effects when taking Fenoterol hydrobromide. Among them, 2 people (0.95%) have Death
Metaproterenol - On Aug, 28, 2015: 52 people reported to have side effects when taking Metaproterenol sulfate. Among them, 1 people (1.92%) has Death
Spiriva - On Aug, 1, 2015: 50,025 people reported to have side effects when taking Spiriva. Among them, 1,199 people (2.40%) have Death.
Ipratropium bromide and trade names
- On Jul, 31, 2015: 6,904 people reported to have side effects when taking Ipratropium bromide. Among them, 170 people (2.46%) have Death
- On Aug, 25, 2015: 13,668 people reported to have side effects when taking Atrovent. Among them, 546 people (3.99%) have Death
- On Aug, 21, 2015: 631 people reported to have side effects when taking Atrovent hfa. Among them, 12 people (1.90%) have Death
Theophylline and a few representative trade name uses
- On Jul, 29, 2015: 10,842 people reported to have side effects when taking Theophylline. Among them, 212 people (1.96%) have Death
- On Aug, 17, 2015: 1,615 people reported to have side effects when taking Uniphyl. Among them, 78 people (4.83%) have Death
- On Aug, 28, 2015: 250 people reported to have side effects when taking Theo-24. Among them, 3 people (1.20%) have Death
- On Aug, 28, 2015: 3,531 people reported to have side effects when taking Theo-dur. Among them, 64 people (1.81%) have Death
- On Aug, 28, 2015: 118 people reported to have side effects when taking Theolair. Among them, 2 people (1.69%) have Death
- On Aug, 20, 2015: 10,859 people reported to have side effects when taking Theophyl. Among them, 212 people (1.95%) have Death.
Foradil - On Aug, 3, 2015: 3,749 people reported to have side effects when taking Foradil. Among them, 151 people (4.03%) have Death
Serevent - On Aug, 20, 2015: 12,130 people reported to have side effects when taking Serevent. Among them, 389 people (3.21%) have Death
Combivent - On Aug, 12, 2015: 14,440 people reported to have side effects when taking Combivent. Among them, 366 people (2.53%) have Death
As at August 2015, and using the figures from ehealthme, this class of products has appeared to have caused
according to the ADRs.
How it works
Why the hallucinations? I think the spiritual experience is caused by over dosing, or using these produces when the cause of the problem has not been investigated [and thus any dose is an overdose] especially high doses and rapid administration.
There then follows a chain of reactions.
At extreme doses vasodilation occurs and the blood pressure falls. Meyer provides an example where 125 micrograms per minute reduced blood pressure by 30mmHg. In effect you suffer from hypotension and hypotension can lead to hypoxia.
Take oxygen from the brain and the reason and memory function are affected. The mind shuts down the reasoning function and memory as a first line of protection against the system failing and the composer takes over. [see How spiritual experience works]
References and further reading
"The sight of anything unusual flying through the air usually induces a fanciful leap of the heart. French photographer Laurent Chehere’s series Flying Houses takes the varied buildings from different arrondissements of Paris and turns them into whimsical airborne montages. Through the series, Laurent’s intention was to take ‘sad buildings’ – apartments, cinemas and even circus tents – left to wilt in the shadow of anonymity and give them new life by telling their stories, whether true or fantasised. For Laurent himself, photography – along with wandering the far reaches of the world – is the perfect way to nourish his own imagination".
The table below shows the drug based solutions to the problem and the number of hallucinations resulting derived from the eHealthme web site. It should be noted that the observations themselves include those from PubMed describing scientific studies that deal with healing. The link takes you to the eHealthme web site where an up-to-date list of all the side-effects of each drug can be found
No of hallucinations
58 + 98 = 156
Theophylline [Uniphyl, Theo-dur, Theophyl etc etc]
53 + 10 + 23 + 31 = 117
Formoterol [eformoterol, Foradil/Foradile, Forpack Discair and Oxeze/Oxis].
Salbutamol known as:
|Levosalbutamol known as:||
1 + 15 = 16
Fenoterol [ Berotec N Berodual N]
Epinephrine - Primatene Mist has now been withdrawn from the market
Procaterol - has never been filed for FDA evaluation in the United States, where it is not marketed. Hence no figures
Clenbuterol - [ Dilaterol, Spiropent, Ventipulmin] is not an ingredient of any therapeutic drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. It is approved for human use in some countries in Europe (Bulgaria), Russia and Asia (China).
Tulobuterol - is marketed in Japan as a transdermal patch under the name Hokunalin tape (ホクナリンテープ). Currently, it is only legal in 6 countries: Japan, Germany, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Venezuela. Hence no figures
Theophylline - is used in the following and it was not possible to keep track of all the hallucinations or deaths via this list, there are simply too many.
Theophylline And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container, Theophylline 0.04% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline 0.08% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline 0.16% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline In Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline 0.2% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline 0.4% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
Theophylline 0.32% And Dextrose 5% In Plastic Container,
- Adenosine and asthma 005301
- Black henbane and its toxicity - a descriptive review 020069
- Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium 017659
- Carum copticum L.: A Herbal Medicine with Various Pharmacological Effects - Respiratory effects 027880
- Therapeutics Education Collaboration - Bohemian Polypharmacy 012489
- Advair and Seretide 017948
- Albuterol and Ventolin 005511
- Alupent 017984
- Aminophylline 017992
- Black henbane and its toxicity - a descriptive review 020069
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and Hallucination, auditory - from FDA reports 024513
- Combivent 005513
- Dulera 018931
- Ephedrine 005514
- Ephedrine from eHealthme 016928
- Formoterol and Foradil 005510
- Herbal supplements and ephedrine 005792
- Intractable diarrhoea and severe weight loss by roflumilast 012795
- Ipratropium 005509
- Phyllocontin 019845
- Proair Hfa 019862
- Proventil 015679
- Respiratory infections: clinical experiences with the new quinolones 019058
- Serevent 005512
- Spiriva 005508
- Stroke and hallucinations 012626
- Symbicort 015711
- Theo-dur and Theophylline 001519
- Trental and Pentoxifylline 005771
- Volmax 020374
- Xopenex and Levosalbutamol 024187