Black henbane and its toxicity - a descriptive review
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014 Sep;4(5):297-311.
Black henbane and its toxicity - a descriptive review.
Alizadeh A1, Moshiri M2, Alizadeh J3, Balali-Mood M4.
- 1Pediatrician- Fellowship of clinical Toxicology Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, I. R. Iran.
- 2Department of Pharmacodynamy and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, I. R. Iran ; Health insurance research office, Armed forces insurance organization of Islamic Republic of Iran, Tehran, Iran (Mashhad branch).
- 3Mechanical Engineer, Hydro mechanical designer BS, Department of Dam and hydropower plant Hydromechanics of Tooss Ab Company, Mashhad, I. R. Iran.
- 4Medical Toxicology Research Centre, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, I. R. Iran.
Black henbane (BH) or Hyoscyamus niger, has been used as a medicine since last centuries and has been described in all traditional medicines.
It applies as a herbal medicine, but may induce intoxication accidentally or intentionally.
All part of BH including leaves, seeds and roots contain some alkaloids such as Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Tropane and Scopolamine.
BH has pharmacological effects like bronchodilating, antisecretory, urinary bladder relaxant, spasmolytic, hypnotic, hallucinogenic, pupil dilating, sedative and anti-diarrheal properties.
Clinical manifestations of acute BH poisoning are very wide which include mydriasis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, agitation, convulsion and coma, dry mouth, thirst, slurred speech, difficulty speaking, dysphagia, warm flushed skin, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision and photophobia, urinary retention, distension of the bladder, drowsiness, hyper reflexia, auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations, confusion, disorientation, delirium, aggressiveness, and combative behavior.
The main treatment of BH intoxicated patients is supportive therapies including gastric emptying (not by Ipecac), and administration of activated charcoal . Health care providers and physicians particularly emergency physicians and clinical toxicologists should know the nature, medical uses, clinical features, diagnosis and management of BH poisoning.
Anticholinergic; Atropine; Black henbane; Hyoscyamine; Hyoscyamus niger; Physostigmine; Poisoning
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Bladder and urinary tract disease
Urinary and bladder control treatments