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Blood-brain barrier flux of aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal-induced neurodegeneration

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019574

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Hallucination

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A description of the experience

J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Nov;10(2-3):223-53.  Blood-brain barrier flux of aluminum, manganese, iron and other metals suspected to contribute to metal-induced neurodegeneration.  Yokel RA1.  1College of Pharmacy and Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536-0082, USA. ryokel@email.uky.edu

The etiology of many neurodegenerative diseases has been only partly attributed to acquired traits, suggesting environmental factors may also contribute. Metal dyshomeostasis causes or has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases.

Metal flux across the blood-brain barrier (the primary route of brain metal uptake) and the choroid plexuses as well as sensory nerve metal uptake from the nasal cavity are reviewed. Transporters that have been described at the blood-brain barrier are listed to illustrate the extensive possibilities for moving substances into and out of the brain.

The controversial role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease, evidence suggesting brain aluminum uptake by transferrin-receptor mediated endocytosis and of aluminum citrate by system Xc;{-} and an organic anion transporter, and results suggesting transporter-mediated aluminum brain efflux are reviewed.

The ability of manganese to produce a parkinsonism-like syndrome, evidence suggesting manganese uptake by transferrin- and non-transferrin-dependent mechanisms which may include store-operated calcium channels, and the lack of transporter-mediated manganese brain efflux, are discussed.

The evidence for transferrin-dependent and independent mechanisms of brain iron uptake is presented.

The copper transporters, ATP7A and ATP7B, and their roles in Menkes and Wilson's diseases, are summarized.

Brain zinc uptake is facilitated by L- and D-histidine, but a transporter, if involved, has not been identified.

Brain lead uptake may involve a non-energy-dependent process, store-operated calcium channels, and/or an ATP-dependent calcium pump.

Methyl mercury can form a complex with L-cysteine that mimics methionine, enabling its transport by the L system.

The putative roles of zinc transporters, ZnT and Zip, in regulating brain zinc are discussed.

Although brain uptake mechanisms for some metals have been identified, metal efflux from the brain has received little attention, preventing integration of all processes that contribute to brain metal concentrations.

PMID: 17119290

The source of the experience

PubMed

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