Suppression

Coriander

Category: Food

Type

Voluntary

Introduction and description

 

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro, Chinese parsley or dhania, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia.

In cooking both the leaves and the seed can be used. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The fruit is a globular, dry schizocarp 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) in diameter.

Medicinal uses

Coriander, like many spices, contains antioxidants, which can delay or prevent the spoilage of food seasoned with this spice. A study found both the leaves and seed to contain antioxidants, but the leaves were found to have a stronger effect. Chemicals derived from coriander leaves were also found to have antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis.

There are also studies showing Coriander helps with “anxiety and insomnia, cholesterol problems, oedema, and indigestion”! Coriander has also been used as a traditional treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Of great interest, is that Coriander leaf was found to prevent deposition of lead in mice, due to a presumptive chelation of lead by substances in the plant. 

Nutrients

The table below shows some of the mineral and vitamin content of coriander seeds. The seeds also provide manganese. They have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes linalool and pinene. It is described as warm, nutty, spicy, and orange-flavoured.
Source: US National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference
Release 26   Software v.1.3.1 Nutrient values and weights are for edible portion

Nutrient

Unit


Value per 100 g

Proximates

Water

g

8.86

Energy

kcal

298

Protein

g

12.37

Total lipid (fat)

g

17.77

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

54.99

Fiber, total dietary

g

41.9

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

709

Iron, Fe

mg

16.32

Magnesium, Mg

mg

330

Phosphorus, P

mg

409

Potassium, K

mg

1267

Sodium, Na

mg

35

Zinc, Zn

mg

4.70

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

21.0

Thiamin

mg

0.239

Riboflavin

mg

0.290

Niacin

mg

2.130

Folate, DFE

µg

0

Vitamin B-12

µg

0.00

Vitamin A, RAE

µg

0

Vitamin A, IU

IU

0

Vitamin D (D2 + D3)

µg

0.0

Vitamin D

IU

0

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.990

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

13.580

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

1.750

Cholesterol

mg

0

 The nutritional profile of coriander seed is different from the fresh stems and leaves, the vitamin content being less than amounts being displayed in the chart below for the plant, with some being absent entirely. 

Coriander (cilantro) leaves, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy

95 kJ (23 kcal)

Carbohydrates

3.67 g

- Sugars

0.87

- Dietary fiber

2.8 g

Fat

0.52 g

Protein

2.13 g

Water

92.21 g

Vitamin A equiv.

337 μg (42%)

- beta-carotene

3930 μg (36%)

- lutein and zeaxanthin

865 μg

Thiamine (vit. B1)

0.067 mg (6%)

Riboflavin (vit. B2)

0.162 mg (14%)

Niacin (vit. B3)

1.114 mg (7%)

Pantothenic acid (B5)

0.57 mg (11%)

Vitamin B6

0.149 mg (11%)

Folate (vit. B9)

62 μg (16%)

Vitamin C

27 mg (33%)

Vitamin E

2.5 mg (17%)

Vitamin K

310 μg (295%)

Calcium

67 mg (7%)

Iron

1.77 mg (14%)

Magnesium

26 mg (7%)

Manganese

0.426 mg (20%)

Phosphorus

48 mg (7%)

Potassium

521 mg (11%)

Sodium

46 mg (3%)

Zinc

0.5 mg (5%)

 

 

Method

All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Wikipedia states that “Coriander is common in South Asian, Southeast Asian, Indian, Middle Eastern, Caucasian, Central Asian, Mediterranean, Latin American, Portuguese, Chinese, African, and Scandinavian cuisine”! In effect, it is used world-wide.

The leaves can be cooked or eaten raw in salads, and sprinkled on dishes before cooking. As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are usually added to the dish immediately before serving.  'The leaves spoil quickly when removed from the plant, and lose their aroma when dried or frozen'.

Chopped with avocados, lemon, salt and sugar with a little spring onion they make a tasty addition to grills and chillis. Added to chopped tomato, spring onion, lemon juice and sugar they can be used with fish.

In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts. Thai dishes in particular depend to a large extent on the addition of coriander leaves.

Coriander seed can be roasted and ground, or simply ground, in spice mixtures. Ground coriander seed loses flavour quickly in storage and is best ground fresh. If cooked with wholegrain rice, as a whole spice and chopped mint and butter added after cooking, it is delicious with lamb chops.

Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries, which often employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin. It acts as a thickener.

Coriander seed can also be used for pickling vegetables. Finally, coriander seeds are used in brewing certain styles of beer, particularly some Belgian wheat beers. The coriander seeds are used with orange peel to add a citrus character and indeed coriander and orange do make a very good addition to sweet dishes, especially those with chocolate in them.

How it works

see observations

Related observations