Category: Natural chemicals
Introduction and description
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Kaempferol (3,4′,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, found in a variety of plants and plant-derived foods. It is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting point of 276–278 °C (529–532 °F), is slightly soluble in water and highly soluble in hot ethanol, ethers, and DMSO. It is named for 17th-century German naturalist Engelbert Kaempfer.
The total average intake of flavonols and flavones in a normal diet is estimated as 23 mg/day, to which kaempferol contributes approximately 17%. Common foods that contain kaempferol include: apples, grapes, tomatoes, green tea, potatoes, onions, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, squash, cucumbers, lettuce, green beans, peaches, blackberries, raspberries, and spinach. Thefulllist is provided as an observation under the heading of Dr Duke.
In the body
Kaempferol is absorbed in the small intestine, usually by passive diffusion due to kaempferol’s lipophilicity, and metabolized in various areas of the body. In the small intestine, kaempferol is metabolized to glucuronides and sulfoconjugates by intestinal enzymes. It can also be metabolized by colon microflora which can hydrolyze the glycosides to aglycones or form simple phenolic compounds. These compounds can be absorbed or excreted. Kaempferol is also extensively metabolized in the liver to form glucurono-conjugated and sulfo-conjugated forms. These forms of kaempferol, and kaempferol itself, can then be excreted in urine. About 2.5% of kaempferol ingested is excreted as urine. Much of the rest of ingested kaempferol is present in plasma and tissues.
As can be seen from Dr Duke’s analysis, a number of studies have shown kaempferol to have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antidiabetic, antiosteoporotic, estrogenic/antiestrogenic, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antiallergic activities.
A number of traditional plant based medicines derive their efficacy from the properties of kaempferol [in combination with other plant based chemicals such as rutin]
- Dr Duke's List of Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Cola acuminata (P. BEAUV.) SCHOTT & ENDL. (Sterculiaceae) -- Abata Cola 027647
- Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats 027503