Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats
Type of Spiritual Experience
Nardostachys jatamansi is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas. It is a source of a type of intensely aromatic amber-colored essential oil, spikenard. The oil has, since ancient times, been used as a perfume, as a medicine and in religious contexts. It is also called spikenard, nard, nardin, or muskroot. Mounting evidence shows that it is critically endangered (as rated by the IUCN) in the wild due to overharvesting for medicine, overgrazing, loss of habitats, and forest degradation.
A description of the experience
J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Aug 22;190:387-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.07.043. Epub 2016 Jul 15.
Pharmacological safety evaluation of a traditional herbal medicine "Zereshk-e-Saghir" and assessment of its hepatoprotective effects on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats.
Sarhadynejad Z1, Sharififar F2, Pardakhty A3, Nematollahi MH4, Sattaie-Mokhtari S5, Mandegary A6.
Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Department of Pharmacognosy and Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutics Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, School of Pharmacy, Haft-Bagh Blvd., P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616914111, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 7616911319, Kerman, Iran; Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Afzalipour"s Hospital, Imam Highway, P.O. Box 7616913911, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
"Zereshk-e-Saghir" (ZES), one of the traditional herbal medicines in old manuscripts of Persian hakims, has been used for the treatment of liver disorders. This current study is aimed to evaluate ZES effects on animal model to investigate its safety and hepatoprotective activity.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
ZES was prepared according to a traditional method by blending aqueous extracts of Berberis vulgaris L., with fine particles of other plants including
- Rosa damascene Mill,
- Cichorium intybus L.,
- Cucumis sativus L.,
- Portulaca oleracea L.,
- Rheum palmatum L., and
- Nardostachys jatamansi DC..
The lethality of ZES was determined in male NMRI mice. Acute organ toxicity of ZES (750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days, orally) was evaluated by measuring the cell blood count, liver marker enzymes, creatinine, antioxidant status and histopathological examinations in rats. CCl4-induced liver toxicity was used to examine the hepatoprotective effects of the preparation. The rats were pretreated with 250, 500, 750 and 1500mg/kg ZES by gavage for 15 days. At day 16, the rats were intraperitoneally injected 1ml/kg CCl4 in olive oil. Forty-eight hours after CCl4 injection, the animals were sacrificed and their liver samples and blood were collected for determination of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (ALT, AST, and ALP), histopathological examinations and antioxidant status.
Treatment of the mice with a single dose of ZES up to 2g/kg did not cause mortality. Treatment of the rats with doses of 750 and 1500mg/kg for 15 days showed no significant hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Treatment of the rats with ZES reduced the increased serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP induced by CCl4 at the doses of 250, 500, and 750mg/kg. This was almost confirmed by histopathological examinations. Pretreatment with ZES also decreased lipid peroxidation and maintained the levels of glutathione and total antioxidant capacity.
The present in vivo study revealed that the long term usage of ZES was safe for organs in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, prescribing the traditionally-recommended dose of ZES can be probably used against the liver injuries induced by xenobiotics. Further studies in other models of liver injuries are recommended for finding the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of ZES.
Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
CCl(4)-induced liver damage; Emodin (PubChem CID: 3220); Gallic acid (PubChem CID: 370); Hepatoprotective effect; Kaempferol (PubChem CID: 5280863); Oxidative stress; Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Rutin (PubChem CID: 5280805); Traditional herbal medicine
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Rosa damascena - Damask rose