Rowanberries and bacteria
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Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is frequently found in the human respiratory tract and on the skin. Although S. aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common cause of skin infections (e.g. boils), respiratory disease (e.g. sinusitis), and food poisoning. Disease-associated strains often promote infections by producing potent protein toxins, and expressing cell-surface proteins that bind and inactivate antibodies. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant forms of pathogenic S. aureus (e.g. MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine
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J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 24;58(22):11985-92. doi: 10.1021/jf102739v. Epub 2010 Nov 1. Rowanberry phenolics: compositional analysis and bioactivities. Kylli P , Nohynek L, Puupponen-Pimiä R Westerlund-Wikström B, McDougall G, Stewart D, Heinonen M.
Berries contain a large variety of different phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, flavonols, tannins, and phenolic acids. Due to variation in the nature and content of the phenolic compounds, the antioxidant effect and other bioactivities of berry phenolics are strongly dependent on the berry raw material as the activities differ between the different phenolic constituents. In the present study, wild rowanberries ( Sorbus aucuparia ) and four cultivated sweet rowanberries, Burka, Granatnaja, Titan, and Zoltaja, were characterized for their phenolic composition and screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiadhesive activities.
The HPLC and LC-MS analyses of phenolic composition revealed that the main phenolic constituents were caffeoylquinic acids, varying from 56 to 80% total phenolics. The cultivated species contained less caffeoylquinic acids and more anthocyanins (up to 28.5%). The phenolics derived from wild rowanberries were significantly effective at inhibiting lipid oxidation both in liposomes and in emulsions, especially when assessed by inhibition of the formation of hexanal (86-97% inhibition depending on concentration). The increase in anthocyanin content in the cultivated species did not result in significantly increased antioxidant activity.
Both wild and cultivated rowanberry phenolics exhibited a bacteriostatic effect toward Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the phenolic extract from Zoltaja was weakly inhibitory toward Salmonella sv. Typhimurium, whereas both Zoltaja- and Granatnaja-derived phenolics retarded Escherichia coli growth. The phenolic extracts of wild rowanberries and Burka showed an inhibitory effect on hemagglutination of E. coli HB101 (pRR7), which expresses the M hemagglutinin. It can be concluded that cultivation of rowanberries resulted in increased anthocyanin content, but this did not diminish their bioactivity in comparison to wild rowanberries rich in caffeoylquinic acids.
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