Hallucinations, brain damage and nanoparticles - Manufacturers and Cosmetic companies
Type of Spiritual Experience
The article mentions 'psychoses' and links with Parkinson's disease, with added mention of Alzheimers and other neurological diseases
A description of the experience
Toxicol Lett. 2012 Oct 17;214(2):91-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Aug 19. Four types of inorganic nanoparticles stimulate the inflammatory reaction in brain microglia and damage neurons in vitro. Xue Y, Wu J, Sun J. Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200023, China.
Once nanoparticles enter the central nervous system (CNS), they immediately encounter a complex environment of resident microglial immune cell and neurons.
In the present study, NPs of 20-60nm in diameter (SiO(2)-NPs, TiO(2)-NPs, HAP-NPs and Fe(3)O(4)-NPs) were evaluated for their ability to induce microglia-mediated neurodegeneration.
The microglia were directly exposed to NPs. The results showed that both TiO(2)-NPs and HAP-NPs induced significant iNOS expression, resulting in NO release from the microglia.
The expression levels of MCP-1 and MIP-1α were also upregulated. These activation effects were accompanied by the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. In addition, the secretion levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were variably increased by all four NPs.
Subsequently, the cell-free supernatants from microglia monocultures were harvested and tested for their ability to stimulate PC12 cells. The results demonstrated that microglia-derived soluble factors induced by TiO(2)-NPs suppressed Th gene expression, and those by TiO(2)-NPs and HAP-NPs caused cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
Taken together, these results suggest that the NPs induced microglial activation and subsequently caused the release of proinflammatory factors that contributed to the dysfunction and cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.
Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Dementia and Alzheimers