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Observations placeholder

Chocolate, Gingko biloba, bilberries and glaucoma



Type of Spiritual Experience


IOP = Intraocular pressure, the fluid pressure inside the eye

A description of the experience


Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2013 Feb;230(2):114-9. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1327825. Epub 2013 Feb 21. [Value of non-IOP lowering therapy for glaucoma]. [Article in German] Cybulska-Heinrich A, Mozaffarieh M, Flammer J. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Basel, Switzerland.

It is well established that an IOP reduction improves, on average, the prognosis of all types of glaucoma.

It is also known, however, that even an ideal IOP does not stop progression in all patients. The insight into the pathogenesis of glaucomatous damage leads to new therapeutic approaches.

Whilst most of these new avenues of treatment are still in the experimental phase, others, such as magnesium, Ginkgo, and salt  are already used by some physicians.

..... A number of other food ingredients such as polyphenolic flavonoids occurring in tea, coffee, dark chocolate or red wine and anthocyanosides found in bilberries have potential antioxidative effects.

The oxidative stress at the level of the mitochondria can be reduced by Ginkgo biloba.

Experimentally, glaucomatous optic neuropathy can be prevented by inhibition of astrocyte activation, either by blockage of epidermal growth factor receptor or by counteracting endothelin. Glaucomatous optic neuropathy can also be prevented by nitric oxide-2 synthase inhibition. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibits apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells and tissue remodelling. Up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects the retinal ganglion cells and the optic nerve head.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

PMID: 23430676

The source of the experience


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