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Encephalitis

Category: Illnesses and disabilities

Type

Involuntary

Introduction and description


Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. 

It can kill. On Oct 13, 2011 it was reported that in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, 438 people died of Encephalitis. 

It may also be under-reported.  The following paper attempts to give statistics for Acute encephalitis, but found that figures were not being accurately collected.

In the most robust, prospective studies conducted in Western industrialised countries, a minimum incidence of 10.5 per 100,000 AES cases was reported for children and 2.2 per 100,000 for adults. The minimum incidence for all ages was 6.34 per 100,000 from a tropical setting. On this basis, for ease of use in protocols and for future WHO surveillance standards, a minimum incidence of 10 per 100,000 AES cases is suggested as an appropriate target for studies of children alone and 2 per 100,000 for adults and 6 per 100,000 for all age groups. PMID:18973679

There were well over 55,000 papers on PubMed alone reporting cases, which is an indication of the severity of the problem.

Names, names, names

 

 You would have thought that acute inflammation of the brain was sufficiently explanatory as a means of diagnosing illness not to need any more names, but, no, we have almost as many names within this category as we have in chronic fatigue syndrome.

The medical community work on the basis that they take a set of observed symptoms, group them, give them a name, then give you drugs for them.  Since this approach rarely involves any investigation of the ultimate cause of the illness, and any one cause can produce hundreds of symptoms which can occur in all sorts of combinations evolving over time, doctors have devised  several hundred names for symptom combinations, but have no idea of the cause of any of them.  They are also unable to heal either, because without knowing the cause, no true healing is ever possible.

If a medicine is a true medicine you should only need to take it once or for a few days and you should be better.  This is healing.  How many pharmaceuticals can you name that do this?  And so with encephalitis every man and his dog has given his name to a new combination of symptoms, so that the drug companies can presumably come out with a drug to match the symptoms:

  • Rasmussen's encephalitis - also known as chronic focal encephalitis (CFE), is characterized by frequent and severe seizures, loss of motor skills and speech, hemiparesis (paralysis on one side of the body), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and dementia. The illness affects a single cerebral hemisphere and generally occurs in children under the age of 15.
  • Bickerstaff's encephalitis -  is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, first described by Edwin Bickerstaff in 1951. It may also affect the peripheral nervous system, and "has features in common with both Miller Fisher syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome".
  • Ochlerotatus triseriatus is a native North American
    mosquito and a vector for La Crosse encephalitis
    La Crosse encephalitis - is encephalitis where the cause has been investigated [hurrah] and found to be an arbovirus which has a mosquito vector (Ochlerotatus triseriatus synonym Aedes triseriatus).  La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain.  ‘It is believed to be under-reported due to minimal symptoms experienced by many of those affected’
  • Wernicke's encephalopathy  - or now often Wernicke's disease refers to the presence of neurological symptoms - where the cause is known - 'biochemical lesions of the central nervous system after exhaustion of B-vitamin reserves' - in particular thiamine. The condition is part of a larger group of diseases related to vitamin B1 insufficiency, including beriberi in all its forms, and Korsakoff syndrome. 'When Wernicke's encephalopathy occurs simultaneously with Korsakoff syndrome it is known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome'.
  • Encephalitis lethargica -  is 'an atypical form of encephalitis' which caused an epidemic from 1918 to 1930. Those who survived sank into a semi-conscious state that lasted for decades.
  • Limbic encephalitis  - is "characterised by inflammation of the brain. It is believed [sic] to be caused by autoimmunity: Although the disease is known as "limbic" encephalitis, it is seldom limited to the limbic system and post-mortem studies usually show involvement of other parts of the brain".  So cause not known.
  • Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus.  So they know the cause [hurrah]. The Japanese encephalitis virus is from the family Flaviviridae.  Amongst the most important vectors of this disease are the mosquitoes Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex vishnui. This disease is most prevalent in Southeast Asia and East Asia.
  • Anti-NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor antibody encephalitis, is potentially lethal.  “ It is believed [sic] to be caused by an autoimmune reaction against the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor.   The condition is associated with tumours, mostly teratomas of the ovaries, however, there are a substantial number of cases with no detectable tumour and in fact it is emerging that most cases do not have tumour.”  So they do not know the cause.
  • Meningoencephalitis - Encephalitis with Meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis.
  • Tick-borne encephalitis  - is a type of encephalitis caused by ticks! TBE Virus is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks (which often remain firmly attached to the skin for days) or occasionally by ingestion of unpasteurized milk. There is no direct person-to-person transmission.
  • Hashimotos's encepalopathy - which is encephalitis superficially caused by thyroid disease, but actually caused by the pathogens shown below
  • Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection with measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself - see vaccines below). It has been estimated that about 1 in 10,000 people infected with measles will eventually develop SSPE
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) - is a usually fatal viral disease caused by the JC virus, a virus which is normally present in most people and kept in control by the immune system.  PML thus occurs in immunocompromised patients -  "patients on immunosuppressive medications, chemotherapy, receiving natalizumab (Tysabri) for multiple sclerosis, on long-term efalizumab (Raptiva) for psoriasis,  brentuximab (Adcetris) for Hodgkin's Lymphoma, or those with AIDS [sic]".

And so the list could continue.  This is what happens when you have symptom based medicine.  But as you will be able to see from the observations encephalitis can be caused by a large number of pathogens.

Symptoms

Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue. More advanced and serious symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremours, hallucinations, and memory problems.

TBEV infection may induce an influenza-like illness which in about 30% of the cases is followed by high fever and signs of central nervous involvement.   Encephalitis developing during this second phase may result in paralysis, permanent sequelae or death. The severity of the illness increases with the age of the patient.

Causes

The following lists the causes of encephalitis and they follow a familiar pattern - the same pattern that can be seen in all brain damage - epilepsy, blindness, hydrocephalus and so on.  A pathogen has passed the blood brain barrier or entered via the nose [a vulnerable point of entry] or an injury to the skull and entered the brain. 

Viral infection

 

Viral encephalitis can occur either as a direct effect of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection.  Many many viruses are not eradicated by the immune system but simply temporarily suppressed.  They lay low, often in adipose tissue, waiting for the immune system to be compromised and then they resurface. 

The 'most common' causes of viral encephalitis are Rabies virus, Herpes Simplex virus, Polio virus, Measles virus,  JC virus. the various influenza viruses, HPV, Mumps virusEBV, Rubella virus, Chicken pox virus [VZV], Cocksackie virus, Picorna virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and CMV. Then there are rhinoviruses,  coronaviruses,  respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and adenovirus.  And we should not forget  infection by flaviviruses such as St. Louis encephalitis or West Nile virus, or by Togaviridae such as Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE) or Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE).
In TBE, the tick carries a virus called the Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the family Flaviviridae. Three subtypes of the causative agent are known: the European (Western), the Far Eastern (spring-and-summer encephalitis) and the Siberian.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) tends to occur focally even within endemic areas. Currently, the highest incidences of clinical cases are being reported from foci in the Baltic States, Slovenia and the Russian Federation. High incidences were also reported from foci in the North-Western Federal Area of the Russian Federation.

Other countries that have reported cases within their territories, or that are considered to be at risk because of focally high prevalence of the virus in ticks, include Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and Ukraine.  Travellers to endemic areas may be at risk during April to November. The risk is highest when hiking or camping in forested areas up to an altitude of about 1500 m.

In fact the list could go on and on for viruses.  Viruses, of which there are hundreds of types, cause encephalitis.

Vaccines

 

You need to carefully read the section on vaccines to understand the cause effect chain that leads to a vaccine causing encephalitis. 

One reason is the use of live, sometimes mutated viruses in the vaccine, which can attack at the time of the vaccination or lay low and re-emerge in people whose immune system has been compromised

The second cause is the use of substances in the excipient of the vaccine that are able to pass the blood brain barrier.  The section E numbers and vaccines lists the substances in vaccines, from this you should be able to see there are quite a number capable of passing the barrier.  Sugars, for example, usually pass into the brain via the blood brain barrier and the following vaccines contain sugars

  • Adenovirus vaccine
  • DTaP/Hib (TriHIBit)
  • Zoster vaccine (Zostavax)
  • Varicella vaccine (Varivax)
  • Typhoid vaccine (oral – Ty21a/Vivotif)
  • Rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq)
  • MMRV vaccine (ProQuad)
 

If a vaccine is administered via the nose you automatically cross the blood brain barrier, with a very high likelihood that the vaccine enters the brain.  Whether it does any harm is dependent on how healthy the person is and their immune system, but if the virus is live and sequesters itself in the brain, it may cause problems later anyway.


A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature....The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included influenza (21 cases), human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases), hepatitis A or B (8 cases), rabies (5 cases), measles (5 cases), rubella (5 cases), yellow fever (3 cases), anthrax (2 cases), meningococcus (2 cases) and tetanus (2 cases). The vast majority of post-vaccination CNS demyelinating syndromes, are related to influenza vaccination and this could be attributed to the high percentage of the population that received the vaccine during the HI1N1 epidemia from 2009 to 2012. Usually the symptoms of the CNS demyelinating syndrome appear few days following the immunization (mean: 14.2 days) but there are cases where the clinical presentation was delayed (more than 3 weeks or even up to 5 months post-vaccination) (approximately a third of all the reported cases). In terms of the clinical presentation and the affected CNS areas, there is a great diversity among the reported cases of post-vaccination acute demyelinating syndromes. Optic neuritis was the prominent clinical presentation in 38 cases, multifocal disseminated demyelination in 30, myelitis in 24 and encephalitis in 17. Interestingly in a rather high proportion of the patients (and especially following influenza and human papiloma virus vaccination-HPV) the dominant localizations of demyelination were the optic nerves and the myelon, presenting as optic neuritis and myelitis ... .  PMID: 24514081

So blindness as well as encephalitis.

Pharmaceuticals

Liza Minelli had encephalitis I quote "Minnelli has long suffered from
addiction to prescription drugs, originating from a Valium
prescription after her mother's death"

Often mis-prescribed pharmaceuticals.  The mis-use of antibiotics for example can destroy the vital flora of the intestine and result in the leeching of toxins and viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria into the blood stream, lymph system or cerebrospinal fluid CSF and then into the brain. 

But antibiotics are not the only culprit in this respect, follow this LINK for a very long list of all the pharmaceuticals implicated in encephalitis.

The list is compiled by eHealthme from the Adverse Drug Reports submitted to the FDA and SEDA in the USA.

Bacterial infection

Bacterial infection is also a known cause of encephalitis.  Bacterial meningitis may spread directly to the brain (primary encephalitis), or encephalitis may be a complication of a current bacterial infectious disease such as syphilis (secondary encephalitis).  Numerous bacteria are implicated, for example

...We present the case of a 7-year-old girl who had intellectual and language assessment seven months prior to the onset of non-HSV encephalitis, with possible aetiology: Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and again post-encephalitis....The patient's profile appears to differ most from that seen following typical HSV encephalitis with respect to marked executive and attentional difficulties.  PMID: 17676533

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes. It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia.

Physical injury and surgery

 

Any traumatic injury to the brain has the potential to provide an entry for bacteria, viruses or parasites.  This may seem trivial, but sports injuries, such as broken noses provide an entry point for an array of pathogens that could cause encephalitis.

Sudden cerebral swelling and death secondary to craniocerebral trauma has been noted in children and young adults. This is due to an increase in intracerebral blood, either secondary to an increase in cerebral blood volume or a redistribution of intracranial blood from the pial to the intraparenchymal vessels. ....The additional possibility of asymptomatic encephalitis ...is discussed. PMID: 3354517

By extension, many of the other types of brain damage can also result in or develop into encephalitis - depending on their cause, for example, Migraine, Bipolar disorder or manic depression,  Parkinson’s disease,  Multiple Sclerosis,  ADHD,  Brain haemorrhage,  Brain tumour,  Concussion,  Stroke,  Meningitis,  Traumatic injury to the brain and head banging,  Hydrocephalus,  EpilepsyEpidural hematoma and  Atonia and atonic seizures.  Encephalitis can develop in children with Autism.  And in a  Stroke,  the condition may worsen to become encephalitis.

Parasites

scratched by cats......

Many parasitic or protozoal infestations, such as toxoplasmosis, malaria, or primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, can also cause encephalitis in people with compromised immune systems.

Lyme disease can cause encephalitis. Another cause is granulomatous amoebic encephalitis.

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite infects most genera of warm-blooded animals, including humans, but the primary host is the felid (cat) family - see Being with cats.  And it is worth adding that Bartonella henselae, is a proteobacterium that can cause bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis and encephalitis and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease, which, as the name suggests, occurs after a cat bite or scratch.

Another serious carrier of parasites is the fox which spreads Echinococcosis.  In countries where dogs and cats are not wormed and their faeces safely disposed of, domestic dogs and cats can also be a problem.  This parasite can also cause brain damage and blindness.

We report a case of Strongyloides meningoencephalitis .... Following a patient's seizure, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed numerous Strongyloides worms (filariaform larvae). The finding of threadworms within the central nervous system (CNS) is rare. .... Unfortunately, the patient never recovered neurologic function and expired after supportive care was withdrawn.PMID: 23427371

Inherited genes 

Some researchers have noticed that encephalitis has a genetic link in some cases, and thus come to the conclusion [because they are geneticists]  that it may be a genetic disease.    But this is not a cause, it is a symptom.  What caused the faulty gene?

 

 

And what we see is that the following may be responsible ...... classified as a toxin, - the nanoparticle - invented by scientists and being released into the environment by scientists in the belief that they do no harm, except that yet other researchers have realised they do a lot of harm......

....DNA damage occurs chemically or physically by nanomaterials. Chemical and physical damage are associated with point mutation by free radicals and double strand brake, respectively. The failure of DNA repair and accumulation of mutations might occur when inflammation is prolonged, and finally normal cells could become malignant. These free radicals can not only damage cells but also induce signaling molecules containing immunoreaction. Nanoparticles and asbestos also induce the production of free radicals. .... Taken together,... a variety of diseases [may be] induced by nanomaterials. PMID: 25097864

So not autoimmune diseases at all. 

Toxins and heavy metals

Decreased Brain Volume from Lead Exposure

Encephalitis can be caused by a host of toxins and heavy metals, including lead and mercury [see references below], pesticides, rodenticides, insecticides, herbicides, plus a number of other chemicals - too numerous to list. 

Both lead and mercury are proven to produce various forms of brain damage, as such they are implicated in the various forms of encephalitis produced by brain damage. 

In this we should not forget the role of dental amalgam fillings, as they are mercury based.  Where a filling is leaking or poor dental work has been undertaken, then the mercury may be the cause.

Another source of mercury is the Thiomersal in some Vaccines.

 

 

 Fungal infection

A range of fungi can cause encephalitis, either directly by inhalation via the nose and lungs, or indirectly through a compromised intestinal system.  Fungi can also produce mycotoxins which can act the same way. 

Mucormycosis is ... caused by fungi of the Mucorales order, commonly affecting immunocompromised patients and adults with diabetic ketoacidosis. Infants are infected through the gastrointestinal tract or the nasopharynx, from where infection can spread to the brain. Mucor fungus is angiotropic, causing thrombosis, infarction and tissue necrosis.A case of neonatal death by mucor encephalitis is reported. The mother had gestational diabetes on insulin.  PMID: 25188126

"The  encephalomyelitis is characterizedby signs of ataxia, progressing
to paralysis, prostration and marked tremor of the head and the neck"

what is interesting about fungal infections is that they have the capacity to attack all sorts of animals, not just us and they do it in much the same way, for example, here is an interesting example related to chickens

Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. PMID:  24506030

Radiation

All radiation whether 'cosmic' or electromagnetic impacts our bodies and depending on its frequency it resonates different parts of us.  The reason that nuclear radiation is so dangerous is that it impacts cells, but what we appear to have overlooked is that all radiation impacts some part of us.

Every aggregate in our bodies - organs, cells, the body itself, has natural ‘resonance’.  Resonance is a substance’s natural tendency to oscillate – vibrate – at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies, known as the thing’s resonant frequency.  And parts of the brain can resonate and cause encephalitis.

Public concerns over possible adverse effects of microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones on health are increasing. To evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain of Fischer rats exposed to microwave radiation, male Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 900 MHz microwave radiation (SAR = 5.953 x 10(-4) W/kg) and 1800 MHz microwave radiation (SAR = 5.835 x 10(-4) W/kg) for 30 days (2 h/day). Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed in comparison with sham exposed groups. Further, significant increase in level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) was also observed following microwave exposure. Results of the present study indicated that increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain. PMID: 23986973

This shows it is possible and happens.  The next question then becomes which frequencies and which organs........

Nutritional deprivation

Vitamin imbalance - both overload and deficiency as well as Mineral imbalance - overload and deficiency can result in encephalitis.  I have provided an observation where potassium deficiency resulted in encephalitis.

But, it is not generally understood how overdosing is as bad as deficiency.  The elderly and children are often dosed up on vitamin supplements and mineral supplements, but there is a direct link between supplements and encephalitis, I have provided some observations relating to molybdenum supplements and vitamin supplements.  The following chart is from the eHealthme site

Source:  eHealthme - On Oct, 29, 2016: 13,814 people reported to have side effects when taking Vitamins. Among them, 18 people (0.13%) have Encephalopathy

And something more to also make you think.  I have put cod liver oil as a medicine in the suppression section because it is a pure source of Vitamin D as long as the fish are from untainted waters and you don't overdose, but there are now all sorts of strange fish oils on the market from 'health food suppliers' which have produced negative effects at overdose levels

On Oct, 27, 2016: 43,497 people reported to have side effects when taking Fish Oil.
Among them, 11 people (0.03%) have Encephalitis

 

Treatment

Ideally the first priority should be prevention as opposed to treatment.

The World Health Organisation lists TBE, for example, as being one of their high priority areas of concern and has issued the recommendation that travellers should prevent blood-feeding ticks from becoming attached to the skin by wearing appropriate clothing, including long trousers and closed footwear, when hiking or camping in countries or areas at risk. The whole body should be inspected daily and attached ticks removed as soon as possible. Also, the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products should be avoided in those areas.

Once infected, however, the principal form of treatment is to find the cause.

See Healing yourself.

Rosie Paley, a hairdresser, recovered but Rosie didn't even recognise her younger brothers Ollie, left, and Rhys, right and had to be re-introduced to them, she is now piecing together her past life with the help of her family

 

How it works

Why do people get hallucinations, visions and near death experiences from encephalitis?  There were, as of mid 2014, over 200 papers on PubMed describing the hallucinations caused by the various forms of encephalitis.  I have only provided a selection in the observations below.

Encephalitis knocks out functions of the brain, sometimes permanently, sometimes only temporarily and if the functions are the right ones it leaves us open to all sorts of experience - see How spiritual experience works.

Thus physically the ultimate cause is Brain damage - see the separate description.  There may also be a contribution from Fever and hyperthermia

References and further reading

  • think about.....
    Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Mar;13(3):215-24. The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes.  Karussis D, Petrou P.
  • Klin Padiatr. 1982 Jan;194(1):29-30.  [Encephalitis following measles-mumps vaccination simultaneous to an EBV-infection (author's transl)].  [Article in German]  Forster J, Urbanek R.  PMID:  6278198
  • Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2014;54(8):668-70.  A case of rubella encephalitis presenting as clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion.  Jinnai A1, Kikuchi T, Ishikawa M, Nishimura Y, Shibata K, Sakura H.  PMID:  25142541
  • J Assoc Physicians India. 1982 Aug;30(8):555-6.  Meningo-encephalitis following chicken pox.  Rao AV, Ramaswamy VN.  PMID:  716949
  • Neurology. 2001 Oct 9;57(7):1336-7.  Status epilepticus due to human parvovirus B19 encephalitis in an immunocompetent adult.  Skaff PT1, Labiner DM.  PMID:  11591864
  • Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Sep;51(3):370-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2014.04.026. Epub 2014 Apr 29.  Central Nervous System Manifestations in Pediatric Patients With Influenza A H1N1 Infection During the 2009 Pandemic.  Wilking AN1, Elliott E2, Garcia MN3, Murray KO3, Munoz FM4.  PMID:  25160541
  • global ......
    Fatal meningitis and encephalitis due to Bartonella henselae bacteria. Gerber JE, Johnson JE, Scott MA, Madhusudhan KT.  J Forensic Sci. 2002 May;47(3):640-4.  PMID:  12051353
  • Balamuthia mandrillaris, free-living ameba and opportunistic agent of encephalitis, is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila bacteria.  Shadrach WS, Rydzewski K, Laube U, Holland G, Ozel M, Kiderlen AF, Flieger A.  Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005 May;71(5):2244-9.  PMID: 15870307
  • A 22-year-old man with headache and stiff neck after a water skiing fall.  Jones K, Singhatiraj E, MacDougall R, Beaver TR, Nugent K.  Chest. 2009 Jan;135(1):225-7. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-0984. No abstract available.   PMID:  19136411
  • December 2002: 19-year old male with febrile illness after jet ski accident.  Gyori E.  Brain Pathol. 2003 Apr;13(2):237-9.  PMID:  12744479
  • Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Ghost Response of an Immunocompromised Host?  Baig AM.  J Med Microbiol. 2014 Sep 19. pii: jmm.0.081315-0. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.081315-0. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID:  25239626
  • Activated microglia contribute to neuronal apoptosis in Toxoplasmic encephalitis.  Zhang YH, Chen H, Chen Y, Wang L, Cai YH, Li M, Wen HQ, Du J, An R, Luo QL, Wang XL, Lun ZR, Xu YH, Shen JL.  Parasit Vectors. 2014 Aug 15;7:372. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-372.  PMID:  25128410
  • Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) RNA in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from natural and urban environment, Poland.  Biernat B, Karbowiak G, Werszko J, Stańczak J.  Exp Appl Acarol. 2014 Jul 22. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID:  25047961
  • Twenty years of Acanthamoeba Diagnostics in Austria.  Walochnik J, Scheikl U, Haller-Schober EM.  J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2014 Jul 22. doi: 10.1111/jeu.12149. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID:  25047131
  • ..warming ....
    Helminth parasitic infections of the central nervous system: a diagnostic approach.  Othman AA, Bruschi F, Ganna AA.  J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2014 Apr;44(1):55-70.  PMID:  24961012
  • Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.  Jones JL, Parise ME, Fiore AE.  Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 May;90(5):794-9. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0722.  PMID:  24808246
  • Incidence and molecular diversity of Acanthamoeba species isolated from public baths in Hungary.  Kiss C, Barna Z, Vargha M, Török JK.  Parasitol Res. 2014 Jul;113(7):2551-7. doi: 10.1007/s00436-014-3905-x. Epub 2014 Apr 30.  PMID:  24781024
  •  [Does an "asthenic" vaccination reaction lead to post-vaccinal encephalitis?].  Stickl H, Borlein W.  Munch Med Wochenschr. 1968 Feb 9;110(6):313-6. German.PMID:  4386941
  • Lead encephalitis as cause of VI nerve palsy. Hart TH.  Pediatrics. 1968 Feb;41(2):536. No abstract available.  PMID:  5637800
  • [Lead poisoning: report of a case of plumbic encephalitis in a child].  MARTI A, COSTALES F, BORBOLLA L.  Arch Hosp Univ.1954 Jan-Feb;6(1):97-108. Undetermined Language. PMID:  13172087
  • Evidence of parallels between mercury intoxication and the brain pathology in autism.  Kern JK, Geier DA, Audhya T, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR.  Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2012;72(2):113-53. Review.  PMID:  22810216
  • [Possible damage of the central nervous system due to toxic industrial substances].  Bittersohl G.  Z Gesamte Hyg. 1974 Feb;20(2):72-8. Review. German. PMID:  4598965
  • Disseminated varicella zoster virus encephalitis. Chai W, Ho MG.  Lancet. 2014 Jul 3. pii: S0140-6736(14)60755-8. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60755-8. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:  24999086
  • Neurological complications of dengue virus infection.  Carod-Artal FJ, Wichmann O, Farrar J, Gascón J.  Lancet Neurol. 2013 Sep;12(9):906-19. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70150-9. Review.  PMID:  23948177

see also The World Health Organisation site describing Tick born encephalitis

Related observations