Suppression

Fructose

Category: Natural chemicals

Type

Voluntary

Introduction and description

paintings are by Henry Ryland

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose.

A description of how fructose is processed by the digestive system is provided in Fructose and sucrose digestion.

Pure, dry fructose is a very sweet, white, odourless, crystalline solid and is the most water-soluble of all the sugars.  It is found in honey, tree and vine fruits, flowers, berries, and most root vegetables.  I have provided a list below form the USDA National nutrients database to provide more precise information on which foods it is found in.

Commercially, fructose is frequently derived from sugar cane, sugar beets, and corn. Crystalline fructose is the monosaccharide, dried, ground, and of high purity. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a mixture of glucose and fructose as monosaccharides.

In the list that follows I have excluded a number of food types, as the USDA database contains over 60 pages of products that contain fructose, in other words over 2000 products.  In general I have tried to exclude manufactured items, as most are only available in the USA and the food labelling normally tells you if fructose is in the product anyway. 

 

Food types excluded which are known to contain fructose or sucrose, often in quite large amounts, include : 

  • breakfast cereals;
  • ice cream - ice cream contains sugar, and often it is fructose or sucrose
  • meat stuffings - for all meats - turkey, chicken, pork, lamb etc
  • baby foods - as an example 'fruit and vegetable', and 'apple and sweet potato' contain over 7g per 100g even though they are unsweetened;
  • baked products - pastries, crackers,  'cookies', biscuits, pancakes, bagels, pies, muffins, rolls, sponges, cakes and some sweet breads often contain fructose or sucrose; even ordinary naan bread, bread, tacos, rolls and pizzas can contain sugars around 2g per 100g
  • catsups and other ketchups
  • dips
  • various mustards - there is one example in the list, but this can only be representative as it depends on the manufacturing process
  • pickles - for example cucumber sweet pickle, piccalili, dill pickles
  • chutneys - all chutneys contain sugars as this is what preserves them
  • canned fruit, which is usually canned in fruit and sugar syrup
  • soft drinks - colas, pops, ginger ale and other fizzy sweetened drinks;
  • yoghurts - those containing fruit or those which are sweetened
  • fast foods;
  • ready meals - numerous ready meals contain sugars including salads such as coleslaw;
  • restaurant foods;
  • dehydrated or canned vegetables - sugars are added to act as preservatives
  • snacks - crisps/chips, pretzels etc;
  • ready made soups - tomato soup for example contains sugars from the tomatos and sugars from the added fructose and sucrose,
  • sauces and gravies [which often contain a surprisingly large amount of sugar] - included in this is not just sweet sauces, which are an obvious source, but sauces such as horseradish sauce or the various tomato sauces for pasta;
  • salad dressings, which again can often contain large amounts of sugars;
  • sweets [which by definition contain sugars]. 

For those who think some cereals are 'healthy' it might be of interest to know that Kellogg's raisin bran [as an example] contains 12g of sugars for every 100g of cereal.

Foods with no fructose

 

Raw plain meat - Simple raw meat contains no or only trace amounts of sugars.  Turkey, chicken, beef, venison, duck and pork contain no sugars.  Veal from Australia contains no sugars.  Veal from the USA does, and I have my suspicions about the way it is handled in the USA.

Processed meats may contain a considerable amount of fructose often used as a preservative. A hamburger, for example, can contain a lot  - about 3g per 100g, as can such dishes as chicken nuggets and meatballs.  Ham often contains a lot of sugar preservative in general, as does bacon, pastrami, some sausages like 'bockwurst', and luncheon meats.  Pepperoni and salami appear to be preserved on the whole using salt and spices and not sugars.  Many 'organic' sausages and bacon contain no sugars.

Raw plain unprocessed fish and shellfish - Raw fish and shellfish contain no sugars - thus flatfish, cod, halibut, perch, pollock, salmon, trout, rockfish, sardines, oyster, mussels, clams, lobster, shrimp, prawns and scallops are sugars free.

But some of the manufacturers who process the fish when they freeze it or process it add sugars.  Some fish fingers contain sugars, some of the artificial 'crabstick' products contain sugars, 'fishsticks' contain sugars, I came across a food called 'double crunch shrimp' which had sugars, as did breaded shrimp.  Canned sardines contain no sugar, but if they are in tomato sauce they do.

Fresh Spices and herbs  - generally do not contain much sugar, but as both red peppers and onions contain fructose, paprika does, as does chilli powder and onion powder.  The USA tends not to eat fresh herbs or spices and as such the only indicator of the sugar content from these is via the dried spices and herbs.  Fresh herbs may contain only a trace amount or at least a great deal less sugar than the dried herbs, as the processing may add sugar content - concentrating whatever sugars there are.

 

Seeds - seeds only contain fructose or sucrose if they have been processed, for example, roasted and then sprayed with sugars.  Sprouted seeds do contain fructose.

Beverages - Coffee, tea, and beer [which may contain sugar, but not fructose or sucrose] contain no fructose as long as they have not been 'processed'.  Chocolate contains no sucrose or fructose.  Even dark chocolate bars contain no fructose, though they contain sugar.

Wines and fortified wines are a source of fructose and sucrose when the sugars have not been converted into alcohol.  Red wine does not appear on the chart according to the USDA and it might be because the sugars all become alcohol, whereas in white wine they don't, or it might be because they haven't measured it yet.

Most legumes -  contain very little or no sugars - kidney beans, navy beans, peanuts, soy beans etc contain no fructose.

But some canned beans - such as baked beans or chili beans, contains a great deal more from the combination of the tomatoes, which have their own sugars,  and the added sugars from the manufacturer.

Vegetables - How much sugar a vegetable contains is dependent on how long it has been picked.  New potatoes straight out of the ground are so sweet they are almost like a fruit.  Baby, freshly picked carrots are much the same.  The longer out of the ground a vegetable is, the more 'starchy' it becomes and thus measuring the sugar content of vegetables is fraught with problems.  Most vegetables contain sugars.  Onions, peas, carrots and sweetcorn contain more fructose than most.  Potatoes are discussed separately below. 

The USDA chart provides no information on root vegetables like parsnip, beetroot, salsify, scorzorona, and so on, though it does have swede [rutabaga].  Root vegetables are known to contain fructose, again the amount depends on their age and freshness.

Dairy products -  contain no or practically no sucrose or fructose - in most cases none.  All the cheeses, plain yoghurt, milk, butter, cream, buttermilk contains no sucrose or fructose.  

But there are some processed cheeses in particular to which sugars are added - mozarella, cheese sticks, cheese slices, etc.  It also appears the the Americans have no access to milk - in other words milk from the cow.  All their milk is processed with things taken out and things stuffed in -  and the processing appears to add sugars to the milk.

Eggs - if fresh and unprocessed straight from the hen or duck contain no fructose or sucrose

Cereals - simple unprocessed grains such as oats contain no fructose, thus porridge is fructose free.  Sorghum, millet and a number of other grains [though not all] are also fructose free.

 

Rice and pasta  - all types of unprocessed rice [white raw, basmati, wholegrain] and the majority of pasta, including noodles,  contains no fructose.  In the USA it appears manufacturers occasionally add sugars to macaroni and spaghetti, a process which does not seem to take place in Europe.  Wild rice is not actually rice, it is a type of grass and may contain fructose and sucrose [see table below].

Mushrooms - all the unprocessed mushrooms contain no sugars - shiitake, oyster, enoki, maitake, chanterelle, morel, button, chestnut and portabella.  There are two exceptions shown in the chart below -  Portabella and something the Americans call a 'white' mushroom, appear to have contradictory entries in the same chart, but it is possible the two entries in the chart below are for processed mushrooms - canned or frozen and this has not appeared correctly in their tables. 

Potatoes - in the chart below you will see that potatoes do contain fructose.  In the NDB tables, however, french fries do not appear to contain fructose.  Most french fries in America come frozen and preprepared and it may be part of the processing that turns the sugars into starches - or they may have got it wrong!

Nuts - all the simple plain unprocessed nuts, blanched or with their skins on, contain no fructose or only trace amounts.  The exceptions are pistachio nuts and macademia nuts.  Again the table appears contradictory as it contains almonds, walnuts , cashews, hazelnuts and pine nuts, for example.  But these appear to have been processed - roasted or fried in oil and then sprayed with sugars to sweeten them. 

Foods with sugars - fructose

As you can see from the following chart fructose comes principally from honey, molasses and maple syrup, as well as fruits and vegetable fruits like tomatoes squashes, aubergines [eggplant] and red peppers.  Dried fruit contains more sugars per gram than fresh fruits.

Smoothies, though not listed are thus a source of considerable amount of fructose.

The presence of miso in the chart is extremely confusing.  Miso is fermented soy beans and should have no fructose.

NDB_No

Description

Fructose (g)
Value Per 100g

19912

Sweetener, syrup, agave

55.60

19296

Honey

40.94

09421

Dates, medjool

31.95

09298

Raisins, seedless

29.68

09094

Figs, dried, uncooked

22.93

09087

Dates, deglet noor

19.56

09423

Prune puree

13.87

09246

Peaches, dried, sulfured, uncooked

13.49

19304

Molasses

12.79

09032

Apricots, dried, sulfured, uncooked

12.47

09291

Plums, dried (prunes), uncooked

12.45

09144

Jackfruit, raw

9.19

09132

Grapes, red or green (European type, such as Thompson seedless), raw

8.13

09314

Sapote, mamey, raw

7.66

09213

Orange juice [unsweetened]

7.55

02069

Vinegar, balsamic

7.38

09130

Grape juice, [ unsweetened]

7.36

09412

Pears, raw, bartlett

6.76

02028

Spices, paprika

6.71

09413

Pears, raw, red anjou

6.48

09504

Apples, raw, fuji, with skin

6.47

09443

Juice, apple and grape blend, with added ascorbic acid

6.46

09252

Pears, raw

6.42

09442

Pomegranate juice, bottled

6.37

09062

Cherimoya, raw

6.28

09501

Apples, raw, golden delicious, with skin

6.10

09415

Pears, raw, green anjou

6.06

09004

Apples, raw, without skin

6.03

16112

Miso

6.00

09503

Apples, raw, gala, with skin

5.93

09003

Apples, raw, with skin

5.90

09500

Apples, raw, red delicious, with skin

5.90

11887

Tomato paste

5.85

09016

Apple juice

5.73

09445

Kiwifruit, gold, raw

5.68

09414

Pears, raw, bosc

5.64

09263

Persimmons, japanese, raw

5.56

35206

Plums, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

5.47

09070

Cherries, sweet, raw

5.37

14057

Alcoholic beverage, wine, dessert, sweet

5.15

09502

Apples, raw, granny smith, with skin

5.00

09050

Blueberries, raw

4.97

09040

Bananas, raw

4.85

09176

Mangos, raw

4.68

09148

Kiwifruit, green, raw

4.35

35204

Chokecherries, raw, pitted (Northern Plains Indians)

4.35

02009

Spices, chili powder

4.29

09129

Grapes, muscadine, raw

3.92

09427

Abiyuch, raw

3.80

09226

Papayas, raw

3.73

09084

Currants, red and white, raw

3.53

09063

Cherries, sour, red, raw

3.51

09326

Watermelon, raw

3.36

09279

Plums, raw

3.07

35202

Raspberries, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

3.04

09184

Melons, honeydew, raw

2.96

09334

Feijoa, raw

2.95

11979

Peppers, jalapeno, raw

2.63

09316

Strawberries, raw

2.44

09042

Blackberries, raw

2.40

09218

Tangerines, (mandarin oranges), raw

2.40

09302

Raspberries, raw

2.35

11693

Tomatoes canned

2.34

11821

Peppers, sweet, red, raw

2.26

09202

Oranges, raw, navels

2.25

09430

Pineapple, raw, extra sweet variety

2.15

14090

Coconut water

2.14

09266

Pineapple, raw, all varieties

2.12

11292

Onions, young green, tops only

2.12

11294

Onions, sweet, raw

2.02

35015

Blackberries, wild, raw (Alaska Native)

1.95

09429

Pineapple, raw, traditional varieties

1.94

11167

Corn, sweet, yellow, raw

1.94

09181

Melons, cantaloupe, raw

1.87

02021

Spices, ginger, ground

1.78

09112

Grapefruit, raw, pink and red, all areas

1.77

02026

Spices, onion powder

1.67

09433

Clementines, raw

1.64

11435

Rutabagas, raw

1.61

11467

Squash, summer, crookneck and straightneck, raw

1.59

11209

Eggplant, raw

1.54

09236

Peaches, raw

1.53

11112

Cabbage, red, raw

1.48

11109

Cabbage, raw

1.45

11052

Beans, snap, green, raw

1.39

11477

Squash, summer, zucchini, includes skin, raw

1.38

09191

Nectarines, raw

1.37

11529

Tomatoes, red, ripe, raw, year round average

1.37

11282

Onions, raw

1.29

35203

Rose Hips, wild (Northern Plains Indians)

1.16

02027

Spices, oregano, dried

1.13

11333

Peppers, sweet, green, raw

1.12

02010

Spices, cinnamon, ground

1.11

19334

Sugars, brown

1.11

02011

Spices, cloves, ground

1.07

11011

Asparagus, raw

1.00

11252

Lettuce, iceberg (includes crisphead types), raw

1.00

11960

Carrots, baby, raw

1.00

11485

Squash, winter, butternut, raw

0.99

11135

Cauliflower, raw

0.97

11641

Squash, summer, all varieties, raw

0.95

09021

Apricots, raw

0.94

11098

Brussels sprouts, raw

0.93

11205

Cucumber, with peel, raw

0.87

11251

Lettuce, cos or romaine, raw

0.80

02015

Spices, curry powder

0.79

02003

Spices, basil, dried

0.75

11206

Cucumber, peeled, raw

0.75

11429

Radishes, raw

0.71

11507

Sweet potato, raw, unprepared

0.70

11090

Broccoli, raw

0.68

09446

Plantains, green, fried

0.66

09078

Cranberries, raw

0.63

09160

Lime juice, raw

0.61

11278

Okra, raw

0.57

11124

Carrots, raw

0.55

11905

Corn, sweet, white, canned, whole kernel, drained solids

0.55

19353

Syrups, maple

0.52

11250

Lettuce, butterhead (includes boston and bibb types), raw

0.51

09428

Rowal, raw

0.50

11265

Mushrooms, portabella, raw

0.49

14536

Alcoholic beverage, wine, dessert, dry

0.47

02043

Spices, turmeric, ground

0.45

11358

Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, baked

0.44

11253

Lettuce, green leaf, raw

0.43

02029

Spices, parsley, dried

0.42

11304

Peas, green, raw

0.39

11143

Celery, raw

0.37

11357

Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, baked

0.36

11354

Potatoes, white, flesh and skin, raw

0.34

19911

Syrup, maple, Canadian

0.34

11356

Potatoes, Russet, flesh and skin, baked

0.32

02020

Spices, garlic powder

0.31

11355

Potatoes, red, flesh and skin, raw

0.31

02048

Vinegar, cider

0.30

11365

Potatoes, boiled, cooked in skin, flesh, without salt

0.30

11367

Potatoes, boiled, cooked without skin, flesh, without salt

0.30

02033

Spices, poppy seed

0.29

11568

Turnip greens, raw

0.29

11257

Lettuce, red leaf, raw

0.28

11352

Potatoes, flesh and skin, raw

0.27

16069

Lentils, raw

0.27

09039

Avocados, raw, Florida

0.25

11176

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, vacuum pack, regular pack

0.25

11312

Peas, green, frozen, unprepared

0.25

11657

Potatoes, mashed, home-prepared, whole milk added

0.25

12151

Nuts, pistachio nuts, raw

0.24

20140

Spelt, uncooked

0.24

02030

Spices, pepper, black

0.23

02046

Mustard, prepared, yellow

0.23

11353

Potatoes, russet, flesh and skin, raw

0.23

17096

Veal, leg (top round)

0.23

20063

Rye flour, dark

0.23

11211

Edamame, frozen, unprepared

0.21

35198

Prickly pears, raw (Northern Plains Indians)

0.21

20060

Rice bran, crude

0.20

20089

Wild rice, cooked

0.20

11172

Corn, sweet, yellow, canned, whole kernel, drained solids

0.18

11463

Spinach, frozen, chopped or leaf, unprepared

0.18

11096

Broccoli raab, raw

0.17

11260

Mushrooms, white, raw

0.17

15089

Fish, sardine, Pacific, canned in tomato sauce, drained solids with bone

0.17

20322

Cornmeal/cornflour  white

0.17

35200

Prairie Turnips, raw (Northern Plains Indians)

0.17

20648

Sorghum flour, whole-grain

0.16

01026

Cheese, mozzarella, whole milk

0.15

11457

Spinach, raw

0.15

12014

Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, dried

0.15

09037

Avocados, raw, all commercial varieties

0.12

11001

Alfalfa seeds, sprouted, raw

0.12

16098

Peanut butter, smooth style

0.12

20064

Rye flour, medium

0.12

12061

Nuts, almonds

0.11

20062

Rye grain

0.11

20099

Macaroni, dry,

0.11

20120

Spaghetti, dry,

0.11

16425

Soy sauce

0.10

12155

Nuts, walnuts, english

0.09

20065

Rye flour, light

0.09

09038

Avocados, raw, California

0.08

12086

Nuts, cashew nuts, oil roasted

0.08

16089

Peanuts, all types, oil-roasted

0.08

12016

Seeds, pumpkin and squash seed kernels, roasted

0.07

12120

Nuts, hazelnuts or filberts

0.07

12131

Nuts, macadamia nuts, raw

0.07

12147

Nuts, pine nuts, dried

0.07

12201

Seeds, sesame seed kernels, dried (decorticated)

0.07

19034

Snacks, popcorn, air-popped

0.07

35205

Stinging Nettles, blanched

0.07

12087

Nuts, cashew nuts, raw

0.05

20080

Wheat flour, whole-grain

0.05

11439

Sauerkraut, canned, solids and liquids

0.04

12142

Nuts, pecans

0.04

20400

Macaroni, cooked

0.03

02024

Spices, mustard seed, ground

0.02

02044

Basil, fresh

0.02

20446

Rice, white, long-grain, dry

0.02

12063

Nuts, almonds

0.01

12109

Coconut meat

0.01

20001

Amaranth grain, uncooked

0.01

 

 

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