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Bronchitis

Category: Illness or disabilities

Type

Involuntary

Introduction and description

Jane Seymour had a near death experience from
being given antibiotics for bronchitis, when the
cause had not been investigated and might have
been viral or even a toxin
 
 

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi (the larger and medium-sized airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the more distal parts of the lung parenchyma).

Types and symptoms

Bronchitis can be divided into two categories: acute and chronic. 

  • Acute bronchitis - is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract). 
  • Chronic bronchitis – is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis may include wheezing and shortness of breath, especially upon exertion and low oxygen saturations. The cough is often worse soon after awakening and the sputum produced may have a yellow or green colour and may be streaked with specks of blood.

Causes

Jane Seymour's NDE changed her life

The doctors should not prescribe any medicine until the cause has been established, as bronchitis has a number of causes.  Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases, whereas bacteria account for about 10%.

Toxins

Chronic bronchitis usually develops due to recurrent injury to the airways caused by inhaled irritants. Cigarette smoke is the most common cause, followed by exposure to air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide, and occupational exposure to respiratory irritants. Individuals exposed to cigarette smoke, chemical lung irritants, or who are immunocompromised have an increased risk of developing bronchitis.

Chronic inhalation of air pollution or irritating fumes or dust from hazardous exposures in occupations such as coal mining, grain handling, textile manufacturing, livestock farming, and metal moulding may also be a risk factor for the development of chronic bronchitis.

Heavy metals

Environmental pollution has increased many folds in recent years and in some places has reached levels that are toxic to living things. Among pollutant types, toxic heavy metals and metalloids are among the chemicals that pose the highest threat to biological systems (Jjemba 2004). Unlike organic pollutants, which are biodegradable, heavy metals are not degraded into less hazardous end products (Gupta et al. 2001).
Low concentrations of some heavy metals are essential for life, but some of them like Hg, As, Pb and Cd are biologically non-essential and very toxic to living organisms.
Even the essential metals may become toxic if they are present at a concentration above the permissible level (Puttaiah and Kiran 2008). For example, exposure to Zn and Fe oxides produce gastric disorder and vomiting, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes.
Intake of Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd and Cu causes heart problems, leukemia and cancer, while Co and Mg can cause anemia and hypertension (Drasch et al. 2006).
Similarly, various studies indicated that overexposure to heavy metals in air can cause cardiovascular disorders (Miller et al. 2007; Schwartz 2001), asthma (Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun 2011), bronchitis/emphysema (Pope 2000), and other respiratory diseases (Dominici et al. 2006).  PMID: 27464847

 
 

Bacterial infection

Protracted bacterial bronchitis is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.  The other bacteria implicated in causing bronchitis include:

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae,
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae,
  • Bordetella pertussis, and
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Moraxella catarrhalis.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

It is important to recognise that this list is not complete, it is indicative.  Furthermore a number of these bacteria are antibiotic resistant, and many new strains are emerging that are also antibiotic resistant.

The virulent nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (NIBV) strain B1648 was first isolated in 1984, in Flanders, Belgium. Despite intensive vaccination, B1648 and its variants are still circulating in Europe and North Africa……………….  Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analyses indicated that B1648 strain may have played an important role in the evolution of IBV in Europe and North Africa.   PMID:  26262637

Even if the bacteria are not theoretically resistant to the antibiotics, there can be serious side-effects from taking them, or as the medical profession say 'co-morbidities':

We report a case of a 33-year-old Sri Lankan man who presented with flaccid quadriparesis with brainstem signs and acute motor axonal polyneuropathy. …. Chest X-ray revealed a cavity in the left lung, which, on bronchoscopy, showed a collection of purulent secretions. Culture of these secretions grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. The patient was treated with two courses of intravenous antibiotics, with resultant radiological improvement; however, with significant morbidity.   PMID:  26494715

Notice how the bacteria had got everywhere, not just the lung.  This is why it is essential that the pathogen is identified, as it could easily have spread throughout the body and the bronchitis is simply the first symptom.

For a fuller list of the bacteria that can cause bronchitis please follow the link to lung disease.

Despite her NDE, Jane recovered  and is now a grandmother

Viruses

A very large number of viruses can cause bronchitis - viruses include:

  • rhinoviruses,
  • coronaviruses,
  • adenoviruses,
  • metapneumovirus,
  • parainfluenza virus,
  • respiratory syncytial virus, and
  • influenza.

Certain viruses such as rhinoviruses and coronaviruses are also known to cause acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.  For more details please follow the link to lung diseases.

 Parasites

Parasites are also able to cause bronchitis.  The parasites tend to be the carriers of viruses and bacteria, although they can cause lesions in the lung.  Here is a rather unusual example about our fellow beings on this once lovely planet:

This is the first work that applies immunohistochemistry in the characterisation of the inflammatory infiltrate of verminous bronchopneumonia associated with lungworm parasites in stranded dolphins. Samples from three different species (Stenella coerulealba, Stenella frontalis and Delphinus delphis) stranded in the Canary Islands were used. The most common findings found in these animals varied from bronchitis to verminous bronchopneumonia with different degree of severity. PMID:  25882640

 

cats - a blessing and a curse ...

Another culprit is the parasite Toxoplasma gondii a parasite that can spread all over the body and cause all sorts of diseases, but here caused bronchitis and heart failure.  It is principally carried and spread by cats.

We report the case of an 86-year-old man who was admitted with congestive cardiac failure and chronic renal failure. He was previously known to have a thoracic aortic aneurysm and chronic bronchitis. … Despite treatment …the patient died. At post-mortem he was found to have Toxoplasma gondii myocarditis.  PMID:  7746778

 

 

 Fungal infection

At one time the role of fungi in bronchitis was little understood and, as we can see from this paper there was the assumption of bacteria, whereas in a small number it was fungal infection.  Here Candida and Aspergillus are the two culprits:

Z Erkr Atmungsorgane. 1979 May;153(2):228-31.  [Frequency of fungal infection in chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis (author's transl)]. [Article in German] Kirsten D, Meister W, Bennert G.
Among 1 161 patients with chronic bronchitis and 172 patients with bronchiectasis treated for a longer time with antibiotics or with antibiotics and corticosteroids and examined all for fungi in bronchial secretion, 34 = 0.9% showed a secondary infection with fungi (32 Candida, 2 Aspergillus fumigatus).  PMID:  398098

Interestingly the Indian medical profession were more on the ball about the link than perhaps western medicine and had long recognised that inhalation of fungi caused bronchitis, pneumonia and asthma  - see for example:

  • Minerva Medicoleg. 1965 May-Jun;85(3):6-9. Role of fungi in chronic bronchitis.  Chakravarty SC.  PMID: 5879937
  • Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 1981 Oct;24(4):209-12.  Mycological flora in sputum of chronic bronchitis. Jain SK, Tiwari SK, Pandey RC.  PMID:  7338395
 

Pharmaceuticals

Mis-prescribed pharmaceuticals and simply pharmaceuticals are also a known cause of bronchitis. 

The eHealthme site collects Adverse Drug Reports submitted by doctors to the FDA and SEDA in the USA.  It then summarises them. 

We used to provide direct links to the list of pharmaceuticals implicated on our site, but the eHealthme site kept on reorganising and changing their links, leaving us with broken links.  Thus in order to obtain the list of pharmaceuticals that have been implicated in causing bronchitis, go to the eHealthme website,  find bronchitis under the conditions; scroll down and you will find a section entitled 'Drugs that could cause bronchitis'.  This is an alphabetic list that also shows the Number of Bronchitis reports as well.

 There were around 1,700 pharmaceuticals in this list as of October 2016.

Treatment

 

 

 

 

Find the cause.

 

Do not accept any treatment until you know the cause.  The following paper came out in 1981, its findings are still being ignored:

Our understanding of chronic bronchitis has been hampered by the fact that the diagnosis is based upon historical evidence of recurrent cough and sputum without any requirement that certain physiologic or microscopic criteria be met. Despite the fact that epidemiological studies have implicated viruses, bacteria, fungi, and pollutants …in a varying percentage of exacerbations, in an individual case it is often difficult to establish a causal role for any agent. …. the widespread use of prophylactic antibiotics cannot be justified on the basis of the studies currently available. It would seem that the most sensible approach in the treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis would be to treat them on an individual basis, avoiding the indiscriminate use of antibiotics.  PMID:  7030600

The observations describe some proven healing mechanisms using food and plants, as well as heat and warmth, once the cause is known.

And remember that Jane Seymour might have died as a consequence of the wrong treatment.............. I'm sure many men would have been heartbroken if she had  ....

 

References and further reading

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016 Jul 28. [Epub ahead of print]  Toxic Metal Pollution in Pakistan and Its Possible Risks to Public Health. Shakir SK1, Azizullah A2, Murad W1, Daud MK3, Nabeela F1, Rahman H4, Ur Rehman S1, Häder DP5. 

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