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Dr Duke's list of Plants with Antidote (Tetrodotoxin) Activity

Identifier

020083

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

Tetrodotoxin, frequently abbreviated as TTX, is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several species that carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other animals (e.g., blue-ringed octopus, rough-skinned newt, and Naticidae) it is actually produced by certain symbiotic bacteria, such as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis, certain species of Pseudomonas and Vibrio, as well as some others that reside within these animals.

Tetrodotoxin inhibits the firing of action potentials in nerves by binding to the voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cell membranes and blocking the passage of sodium ions (responsible for the rising phase of an action potential) into the nerve cell.

Its mechanism of action, selective blocking of the sodium channel, was shown definitively in 1964 by Toshio Narahashi and professor John W. Moore at Duke University, using the sucrose gap voltage clamp technique.

A description of the experience

Number of Chemicals in Plants

with Antidote (Tetrodotoxin) Activity

Anisodus tanguticus (Zang Qie) Plant - 2 chemicals

Atropa bella-donna (Belladonna) Root - 2 chemicals

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Seed - 2 chemicals

Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane) Seed - 2 chemicals

Latua pubiflora (Latua) Leaf - 2 chemicals

Mandragora officinarum (Mandrake) Root - 2 chemicals

Brugmansia amesianum (Culebra) Plant - 2 chemicals

Datura candida (Borrachero) Plant - 1 chemicals

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Flower - 1 chemicals

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Leaf - 1 chemicals

Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed) Plant - 1 chemicals

Duboisia myoporoides (Pituri) Leaf - 1 chemicals

Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane) Leaf - 1 chemicals

Scopolia carniolica (Scopolia) Rhizome - 1 chemicals

Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet) Seed - 1 chemicals

 

Wed Feb 3 10:56:56 EST 2016

Concentration of Chemicals in Plants

with Antidote (Tetrodotoxin) Activity

Latua pubiflora (Latua) Stem - 10,000 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Leaf - 7,700 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura candida (Borrachero) Plant - 6,600 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Seed - 6,470 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed) Seed - 6,100 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Root - 4,680 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Latua pubiflora (Latua) Leaf - 3,700 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Leaf - 3,500 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Shoot - 3,320 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Root - 2,340 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed) Plant - 2,000 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Latua pubiflora (Latua) Seed - 1,600 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Flower - 1,340 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura metel (Hindu Datura) Stem - 780 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Scopolia carniolica (Scopolia) Rhizome - 600 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Datura innoxia (Thorn Apple) Seed - 410 ppm total [1 chemical(s)]

Atropa bella-donna (Belladonna) Root - 176 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

Mandragora officinarum (Mandrake) Root - 140 ppm total [2 chemical(s)]

 

Wed Feb 3 10:57:19 EST 2016

 

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References