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Scrofula, TB and spa and sea water



Type of Spiritual Experience


Both sulphur and iodine are antifungals and antibacterial.  You can also eat sulphur containing vegetables - for example brassicas.

Scrofula is a bacterial disease.   

"Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula, refers to a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis as well as non tuberculous (atypical) mycobacteria"

A description of the experience

Pharm Hist (Lond). 2012 Jun;42(2):26-32. The treatment of scrofula in Ferrara (Italy) in the 19th century. Vicentini CB, Altieri L, Guidi E, Contini C, Manfredini S. Department of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Ferrara, Italy.

The therapeutic approaches used against scrofula in the 19th Century in Ferrara are discussed.

In the manuscripts and treatises of the time treasured in the town's libraries, hygienic and dietetic rules and treatment of this illness were described.

In particular, baths and mineral water spas (sulphurous, ferruginous and other mineral waters, such as a bromo-iodine-salt water) and the sea-bathing establishment were recommended.

The remedies reported in Campana's Pharmacopoeia ferrarese and the efficacious treatments employed in St Anna Hospital are discussed. The Committee and its President, Marquis Giovanni Manfredini, decided to cure the scrofulous in bathing establishments.

PMID: 23045791

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps