Observations placeholder

Dr Duke on Artemisia Annua

Identifier

012751

Type of Spiritual Experience

Background

If we take the plant as a whole, it would make a very good ointment or spray to repel insects, viruses, fungi and bacteria.  But this plant in a select number of chemicals has anti-malarial activity thus you would have to know how to extract only those chemicals before it was used - as Dr Tu Youyou found out.

A description of the experience

Chemicals and their Biological Activities in: Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) -- Annual Mugwort (GRIN), Annual Wormwood (GRIN), Qinghao, Sweet Annie, Sweet Wormwood (GRIN)


Chemicals

1,8-CINEOLE Leaf 2,360 - 6,600 ppm

(-)-Chronotropic 87 nl/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Acaricide LC100=6 uM; Allelopathic; Allergenic; Anesthetic; Anthelmintic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=41 ug/ml; Antiallergic; Antibacterial 50 ppm; Antibronchitic; Anticariogenic; Anticatarrh; Anticholinesterase IC50=50-70; Antifatigue; Antihalitosic; Antiinflammatory; Antilaryngitic; Antinociceptive; Antipharyngitic; Antiplaque; Antirheumatic; Antirhinitic; Antiseptic; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic 50 ppm; Antitussive; Antiulcer; Candidicide; Carcinogenic; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; Decongestant; Degranulant 0.3 ul/ml; Dentifrice; Edemagenic inj; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 1-200; Fungicide; Gastroprotective; Gram(+)icide; Gram(-)icide; Hepatotonic; Herbicide IC50=78 uM; Hypotensive; Inflammatory inj; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide; Neurotoxic; P450-Inducer; Pediculicide 2.3 x pyrethrin; Perfume; Pesticide; Rubefacient; Secretogogue; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Surfactant; Testosterone-Hydroxylase-Inducer; Transdermal; Trichomonicide LD100=1,000 ug/ml

3,3,6-TRIMETHYL-HEPTA-1,5-DIEN-4-OL Plant:

No activity reported.

3,5-DIHYDROXY-6,7,3',4'-TETRAMETHOXYFLAVONE Plant:

No activity reported.

3-METHYL-PINOCARVONE Plant:

No activity reported.

6,7,3',4'-TETRA-O-METHYL-QUERCETAGETIN Leaf:

No activity reported.

ALPHA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant:

No activity reported.

ALPHA-PINENE Leaf 1,345 - 3,760 ppm

Allelochemic; Allergenic; Antiacne; Antibacterial; Antifeedant; Antiflu; Antiinflammatory 500 mg/kg; Antipneumonic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antistaphylococcic; Antiviral; Cancer-Preventive; Coleoptophile; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-150; Herbicide IC50=30 uM; Insecticide 0.82 uM/fly; Insectifuge 50 ppm; Insectiphile; Irritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=0.087 uM; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Spasmogenic; Tranquilizer; Transdermal

ARTEANNUIN-A Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEANNUIN-B Plant:

Antiseptic MIC=100-150 ug/ml; Candidicide MIC=100 ug/ml; Fungicide MIC=100-150 ug/ml

ARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEMISIA-KETONE Leaf 2,200 - 16,000 ppm

No activity reported.

ARTEMISIC-ACID Plant:

Antibacterial; Pesticide

ARTEMISIC-ACID-METHYL-ESTER Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEMISILACTONE Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEMISININ Flower 100 - 5,000 ppm Leaf 100 - 5,000 ppm

Antimalarial ED50=90 mg/kg orl mus ED95=1,000 mg/man/day IC50=1.4 nM or 0.0014 uM (ED95=1,000 mg/man/day); Antitumor; Antiviral; Calcium-Antagonist IC50=190 uM gpg; Cytotoxic IC50=30 uM; Herbicide IC50=33 uM; Immunomodulator; MDR-Inhibitor IC50=2 uM; Neurotoxic; Pesticide; Plasmodicide IC50=1.4 nM; Schizonticide MIC=0.1 uM; Teratogenic

ARTEMISINOL Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEMISITINE Plant:

No activity reported.

ARTEMISYL-ACETATE Plant:

No activity reported.

BETA-ARTEANNUAN Plant:

No activity reported.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant:

No activity reported.

BETA-FARNESENE Plant:

No activity reported.

BETA-PINENE Plant:

Allergenic; Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Candidicide; FLavor FEMA 15-600; Herbicide; Insectifuge; Irritant; Perfumery; Pesticide; Spasmogenic; Transdermal

BETA-SELINENE Plant:

Antimalarial IC50=>50 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial; Perfumery

BETA-SITOSTEROL Plant:

Androgenic; Angiogenic; Anorexic; Antiadenomic; Antiandrogenic; Antibacterial; Anticancer (Breast); Anticancer (Cervix); Anticancer (Lung); Antiedemic IC54=320 mg/kg orl; Antiestrogenic; Antifeedant; Antifertility; Antigonadotrophic; Antihyperlipoproteinaemic; Antiinflammatory; Antileukemic; Antilymphomic; Antimutagenic 250 ug/ml; Antiophidic 2.3 mg mus; Antioxidant IC44=10 uM; Antiprogestational; Antiprostaglandin 30 mg/day/12 wks; Antiprostatadenomic; Antiprostatitic 10-20 mg 3 x/day/orl man; Antipyretic; Antitumor (Breast); Antitumor (Cervix); Antitumor (Lung); Antiviral; Apoptotic; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Candidicide; Caspase-8-Inducer; Estrogenic; Febrifuge; Gonadotrophic; Hepatoprotective; Hypocholesterolemic 2-6 g/man/day/orl 9-3,330 mg/man/day/orl; Hypoglycemic; Hypolipidemic 2-6 g/day; Pesticide; Spermicide; Ubiquiot; Ulcerogenic 500 mg/kg ipr rat

BORNEOL Plant:

(-)-Chronotropic 29 ug/ml; (-)-Inotropic; Allelochemic; Analgesic; Antiacetylcholine; Antibacterial MIC=125-250 ug/ml; Antibronchitic; Antiescherichic MIC=125 ug/ml; Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory; Antiotitic; Antipyretic; Antisalmonella; Antispasmodic ED50=0.008 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=250 ug/ml; Antiyeast; Candidicide; Choleretic; CNS-Stimulant; CNS-Toxic; FLavor FEMA<1; Fungicide; Hepatoprotective; Herbicide IC50=470 mM IC50=470 uM; Inhalant; Insect-Repellent; Insectifuge; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Tranquilizer

CAMPHENE Plant:

Allelopathic; Antilithic?; Antioxidant; Expectorant; FLavor FEMA 15-175; Hypocholesterolemic?; Insectifuge; Pesticide; Spasmogenic

CAMPHENE-HYDRATE Leaf 1,000 - 2,820 ppm

No activity reported.

CAMPHOR Leaf 1,720 - 6,460 ppm

Allelopathic; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiacne; Antidiarrheic 500 ug/ml; Antidysenteric; Antiemetic 100-200 mg man orl; Antifeedant IC50=5,000 ppm diet; Antifibrositic; Antineuralgic; Antipruritic; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.075 mg/ml; Cancer-Preventive; Carminative; CNS-Stimulant; Convulsant; Cosmetic; Counterirritant; Decongestant; Deliriant; Ecbolic; Emetic; Epileptigenic; Expectorant; Fungicide ED50=2.7 mM; Herbicide IC50=3.3-180 mM; Insect-Repellent; Insectifuge; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Occuloirritant; P450-2B1-Inhibitor IC50=7.89 uM; Pesticide; Respirainhibitor; Respirastimulant; Rubefacient; Stimulant; Transdermal; Verrucolytic; Vibriocide 500 ug/ml

CAPILLENE Plant 80 ppm;

No activity reported.

CARYOPHYLLENE-OXIDE Plant:

Antiedemic; Antifeedant; Antiinflammatory; Antitumor; Calcium-Antagonist ED50=32 uM gpg; Fungicide; Insecticide; Pesticide

COUMARIN Plant:

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor 10 ug/ml cow (weak activity, 11% inhibition); Allelochemic IC100=2 mM; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiaggregant; Antiandrogenic; Antibrucellosic; Anticancer (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/day; Anticancer (Prostate); Antidiuretic; Antiedemic; Antiesherichic; Antiinflammatory; Antilymphedemic; Antimelanomic 50 mg/day; Antimetastatic 50 mg/man/day; Antimitotic; Antimononuccleotic; Antimutagenic; Antimycoplasmotic; Antipsittacotic; Antipsoriac; Antitoxoplasmotic; Antitumor 50 mg/day; Antitumor (GI); Antitumor (Kidney) 400-7,000 mg/day; Antitumor (Prostate); Bacteristat; Bruchiphobe; Cancer-Preventive 5-25 ug/ml; Carcinogenic 200 mg/kg orl mus; Cardiodepressant; Cardiotonic; Chemopreventive; DME-Inhibitor IC50=57.5 uM; Emetic; Estrogenic; Fungicide; Hemorrhagic; Hepatotoxic 0.8-1.71 mM/kg orl rat 100 mg/kg dog 2,500 ppm diet; Hypnotic; Hypoglycemic 250-1,000 mg/kg orl; Immunostimulant; Juvabional; Larvistat; Lymphocytogenic 100 mg/day; Lymphokinetic; Narcotic; Ovicide; Pesticide; Phagocytotic; Piscicide; Respirodepressant; Rodenticide; Sedative

CUMINALDEHYDE Leaf:

Antibacterial; FLavor FEMA <1; Fungicide; Irritant; Larvicide; Perfumery; Pesticide; Sedative; Tyrosinase-Inhibitor ID50=0.05 mM; Ulcerogenic

DELTA-CADINENE Plant:

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor; Antiacne; Antibacterial MIC800 ug/ml; Anticariogenic; Antistreptococcic; Cytochrome-P450-Inducer; P450-Inducer; Pesticide; Testosterone-Inducer

DEOXYARTEMISININ Plant:

Antiviral; Pesticide

EO Leaf 8,400 - 23,500 ppm

No activity reported.

GAMMA-CARYOPHYLLENE Plant:

No activity reported.

HENTRIACONTANYLTRIACONTANOATE Plant:

No activity reported.

HUMULENE Plant:

Antimalarial IC50=86 ug/ml; Antiplasmodial

ISOARTEMISIA-ACETATE Plant:

No activity reported.

ISOARTEMISIA-ALCOHOL Plant:

No activity reported.

ISOARTEMISIA-KETONE Plant 3,400 ppm;

No activity reported.

MENTHOL Plant:

Allergenic; Analgesic; Anesthetic 2,000 ppm; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC50=2.0 mM; Antiaggregant IC50=750; Antiallergic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacillus MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antibacterial MIC=0.625-2.5; Antibronchitic; Antidandruff; Antiescherichic MIC=1.25 mg/ml; Antihalitosic; Antihistaminic; Antiinflammatory; Antilisteria MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antineuralgic; Antiodontalgic; Antipruritic; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic; Antisalmonella; Antiseptic 4 x phenol; Antisinusitic; Antispasmodic ED50=0.01 mg/ml; Antistaphylococcic MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Antistreptococcic MIC=0.4 mg/ml; Antitartar; Antivaginitic; Antivulvitic; Bradycardic 65 mg/3 x day/woman; Bronchomucolytic; Bronchomucotropic; Bronchorrheic; Calcium-Antagonist; Candidicide MIC=0.625 mg/ml; Carminative; Choleretic; Ciliotoxic; CNS-Depressant; CNS-Stimulant; Congestant; Convulsant; Counterirritant; Decongestant? 11 mg/man; Dermatitigenic; Diaphoretic; Enterorelaxant; Expectorant; Gastrosedative; Irritant; Myorelaxant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Neurodepressant; Neuropathogenic 40-100 mg/day/rat; Nociceptive; Perfumery; Pesticide; Refrigerant; Rubefacient; Termiticide; Transdermal; Vibriocide

METHYL-ACETATE Plant:

FLavor FEMA 1-30; Perfumery; Trypsin-Enhancer

MYRCENOL Plant:

No activity reported.

NONACOSANOL Plant:

No activity reported.

O-CYMENE Plant:

No activity reported.

OCIMENE Plant:

Insecticide; Perfumery

OCTACOSANOL Plant:

Androgenic; Antiparkinsonian 1-15 mg day; Antiviral; Hypocholesterolemic; Hypolipidemic; Stimulant 2.2 mg/kg orl gpg

P-CYMENE Plant:

Analgesic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC40=1.2 mM; Antibacillary; Antibacterial; Antiflu; Antirheumatalgic; Antiviral; FLavor FEMA 12-250; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=50 uM; Insectifuge; Irritant; Laxative; Pesticide; Sedative; Trichomonicide LD100=50 ug/ml

PINOCARVEOL Plant:

No activity reported.

PINOCARVYL-ACETATE Plant:

No activity reported.

QINGHAOSU-IV Plant:

No activity reported.

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,3',4'-TETRAMETHYLETHER Plant:

Antitumor; Cytotoxic

QUERCETAGETIN-6,7,4'-TRIMETHYLETHER Plant:

No activity reported.

SCOPOLETIN Plant:

Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor IC50=6.2 ug/ml cow; Allelochemic IC89=2 mM; Analgesic; Anesthetic; Antiadrenergic; Antiaflatoxin 11.4 ppm IC50=65 uM; Antiarrhythmic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antibronchoconstrictor; Anticholinergic; Antiedemic; Antifeedant; Antihepatotoxic; Antiinflammatory ED 1-10 ug/ear; Antileukotrienogenic; Antimutagenic; Antioxidant; Antiproliferant; Antiprostaglandin; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antitumor 2.9 ug/ml; Apoptotic; Bronchorelaxant; Cancer-Preventive; Cholagogue; Choleretic; CNS-Depressant; CNS-Stimulant; Cytotoxic; Fungicide 2 mM; Hepatoprotective; Herbicide; Hypoglycemic; Hypotensive; MAO-Inhibitor; Musculotropic; Myorelaxant; Pesticide; Phytoalexin; Phytohormonal; Uterosedative

STIGMASTEROL Plant:

Antihepatotoxic; Antiinflammatory; Antinociceptive; Antiophidic 2.3 mg ipr mus; Antioxidant IC33=10 uM; Antiviral; Artemicide LC50=110 ppm; Cancer-Preventive; Estrogenic; Hypocholesterolemic; Ovulant; Sedative

TERPINEN-4-OL Plant:

Allelopathic; Antiacetylcholinesterase IC21-24=1.2 mM; Antiacne; Antiallergic; Antiasthmatic; Antibacterial; Antioxidant; Antiseptic; Antispasmodic; Antitussive; Antiulcer; Bacteriostatic; Diuretic 0.1 ml/rat; Fungicide; Herbicide IC50=200 mM IC50=22 uM; Insectifuge; Irritant; Nematicide MLC=1 mg/ml; Pesticide; Renoirritant; Spermicide ED100=0.015; Vulnerary

TETRATRIACONTANE Plant:

No activity reported.

YLANGENE Plant:

Perfumery


ppm = parts per million
tr = trace

The source of the experience

Dr Dukes plant database

Concepts, symbols and science items

Concepts

Symbols

Science Items

Activities and commonsteps

Commonsteps

References