Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti
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Anopheles gambiae is a complex of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. This complex was recognised in the 1960s and includes the most important vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa particularly of the most dangerous malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. It is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known.
Culex quinquefasciatus (earlier known as Culex fatigans), the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is the vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus. It is taxonomically regarded as a member of the Culex pipiens species complex. Its genome was sequenced in 2010, and was shown to have 18,883 protein-coding genes.
Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can be recognized by white markings on its legs and a marking in the form of a lyre on the upper surface of the thorax. The mosquito originated in Africa but is now found in tropical and subtropical regions throughout the world. The average wing length of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes varies greatly (1.67–3.83 mm in a Peruvian habitat).
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Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 May;26(3):561-6.
Larvicidal effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Senna alata on Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti.
Edwin UP1, Nyiutaha IG, Essien AE, Nnamdi OK, Sunday EM.
- 1Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria. firstname.lastname@example.org
Senna alata is locally used in South Eastern Nigeria in the treatment of several infections which include ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases.The larvicidal activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf and stem extracts of S. alata were evaluated in static bioassays, on fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti, at extract concentrations of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% w/v, for 72 hours. Mortality of larvae exposed to the different extracts increased with increase in extract concentration and time of exposure. This study revealed a differential potency of the extracts used and a difference in susceptibility of larvae to the extracts as evident by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained. The leaf extract proved to be more lethal to the larvae than the stem extract as judged by the 72hLC₅₀ values obtained both for the aqueous as well as the ethanolic extracts assayed. Phytochemical screening of the plant parts investigated revealed the presence of some plant metabolites, which have been reported in separate studies to be lethal to mosquito larvae. Results obtained from this study suggest that the leaf and stem extracts of S. alata possess a promising larvicidal potential which can be exploited in mosquito vector control.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Malaria treatments and prevention
West Nile Virus infection