Abberant inverted U-shaped brain pattern and trait-related retinal impairment in schizophrenia patients with combined auditory and visual hallucinations: a pilot study
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Brain Imaging Behav. 2020 Apr 17. doi: 10.1007/s11682-020-00281-y. [Epub ahead of print]
Abberant inverted U-shaped brain pattern and trait-related retinal impairment in schizophrenia patients with combined auditory and visual hallucinations: a pilot study.
Zhuo C1,2,3,4,5,6,7, Xiao B8, Chen C9, Jiang D9, Li G10, Ma X11, Li R11, Wang L11, Xu Y12, Zhou C13, Lin X14.
Schizophrenic patients often experience auditory hallucinations (AHs) and visual hallucinations (VHs). However, brain and retinal alterations associated with combined AHs and VHs in schizophrenic patients are unknown.
This study aimed o investigate brain and retinal alterations in first episode un-treated schizophrenic patients with combined AHs and VHs (FUSCHAV). FUSCHAV patients (n = 120), divided into four groups according to severity of AH and VH symptoms, were compared to healthy controls (n = 30). Gray matter volume (GMV) and global functional connectivity density (gFCD) were recorded to reflect brain structure and functional alterations.
Total retinal thickness was acquired by optical coherence tomography to assess retinal impairment.
The majority of FUSCHAV patients (85.8%) demonstrated both GMV reduction and gFCD increases along with retinal thinning compared to healthy controls. The severity of GMV reduction and gFCD increase differed between patient groups, ranked from highest to lowest severity as follows:
- severe AHs combined with severe VHs (FUSCHSASV, 20 patients),
- moderate AHs combined with severe VHs (FUSCHMASV, 23 patients),
- severe AHs combined with moderate VHs (FUSCHSAMV, 28 patients), and
- moderate AHs combined with moderate VHs (FUSCHMAMV, 26).
Retinal impairment was similar among the four FUSCHAV groups. GMV reduction and gFCD increases in the frontal-parietal lobule show an inverted U-shaped pattern among FUSCHAV patients according to AH and VH severity, while retinal impairment remains stable among FUSCHAV groups. These findings indicate a reciprocal deterioration in auditory and visual disturbances among FUSCHAV patients.
Auditory hallucinations; GMV; Schizophrenia; Vision hallucinations; gFCD
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