Some science behind the scenes

Limonene

Limonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene.

All the details of its activity can be found by following the link to the main Medicine Limonene  page, however, this page lists the plants that contain limonene.  Please note that the links take you away from this site to Dr Duke's phytochemical database.

Plant parts with Ozone-scavenger Activity
from the chemical LIMONENE


 

Abies alba MILLER -- Silver-Fir; found in Leaf, Resin, Exudate, Sap
Abies balsamea (L.) MILLER -- Balsam Fir; found in Plant
Achillea millefolium L. -- Milfoil, Yarrow; found in Leaf
Acinos suaveolens (SIBT. & SMITH) G. DON F.; found in Shoot
Acorus calamus L. -- Calamus, Flagroot, Myrtle Flag, Sweet Calamus, Sweetflag, Sweetroot; found in Rhizome
Aeolanthus myriantha BAKER -- Ninde; found in Flower
Agastache foeniculum (PURSH) KUNTZE -- Giant Hyssop; found in Plant
Agastache nepetoides (L.) KUNTZE; found in Plant
Agastache urticifolia (BENTH.) KUNTZE -- Nettle-Leaf Giant Hyssop; found in Plant
Ageratum conyzoides L. -- Mexican ageratum; found in Shoot
Aloysia citrodora PALAU -- Lemon Verbena; found in Plant
Anacardium occidentale L. -- Cashew; found in Fruit
Anethum graveolens L. -- Dill, Garden Dill; found in Plant
Angelica archangelica L. -- Angelica, Garden Angelica, Wild Parsnip; found in Root
Aniba rosaeodora DUCKE -- Bois-De-Rose, Cayenne Rosewood; found in Essential Oil
Annona squamosa L. -- Sugar-Apple, Sweetsop; found in Plant
Apium graveolens L. -- Celery; found in Et, Fruit Essent. Oil , Root Essent. Oil , Seed
Armoracia rusticana GAERTN. ET AL. -- Horseradish; found in Plant
Artemisia dracunculus L. -- Tarragon; found in Shoot
Asarum canadense L. -- Wild Ginger; found in Rhizome
Asiasarum sieboldii (MIQ.) MAEK. -- Siebold's Wild Ginger; found in Root
Asimina triloba (L.) DUNAL -- Pawpaw; found in Fruit
Avena sativa L. -- Oats; found in Seed
Boswellia sacra FLUECK -- Frankincense, Oliban (Sp.), Olibanum, Olibanum Tree, Weihrauchbaum (Ger.), Weihrauchpflanze (Ger.), arbol del incensio (Sp.); found in Essential Oil
Bursera delpechiana POISS. -- Lignaloe, Linaloe; found in Wood
Calamintha nepeta subsp. glandulosa (REQ.) P.W.BALL -- Turkish Calamint; found in Leaf, Shoot
Canarium indicum L. -- Java-Olive, Manila Elemi; found in Essential Oil
Capsicum annuum L. -- Bell Pepper, Cherry Pepper, Cone Pepper, Green Pepper, Paprika, Sweet Pepper; found in Fruit
Capsicum frutescens L. -- Cayenne, Chili, Hot Pepper, Red Chili, Spur Pepper, Tabasco; found in Fruit
Carthamus tinctorius L. -- Safflower; found in Bud, Leaf
Carum carvi L. -- Caraway, Carum, Comino (Sp.), Comino de prado (Sp.), Kummel (Ger.); found in Fruit, Plant
Chamaemelum nobile (L.) ALL. -- Garden Camomile, Perennial Camomile, Roman Camomile; found in Plant
Chenopodium ambrosioides L. -- Epazote, Wormseed; found in Plant
Chrysanthemum balsamita L. -- Balsamite, Costmary; found in Plant
Cinnamomum camphora (L.) NEES & EBERM. -- Camphor, Ho Leaf; found in Leaf
Cinnamomum verum J. PRESL -- Ceylon Cinnamon, Cinnamon; found in Bark
Cistus ladaniferus L. -- Ambreine, Gum Cistus, Labdanum, Rockrose; found in Leaf
Citrullus colocynthis -- Colocynth; found in Petiole
Citrus aurantiifolia (CHRISTM.) SWINGLE -- Lime; found in Fruit
Citrus aurantium L. -- Bitter Orange, Petitgrain; found in Leaf, Plant
Citrus limon (L.) BURMAN f. -- Lemon; found in Essential Oil, Leaf Essent. Oil , Pericarp Essent. Oil
Citrus mitis BLANCO -- Calamansi, Calamondin; found in Fruit Juice
Citrus reticulata BLANCO -- Mandarin, Tangerine; found in Fruit
Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK -- Orange; found in Fruit, Fruit Juice
Cleonia lusitanica (L.) L. -- Spanish Heal-All; found in Leaf
Commiphora myrrha (NEES) ENGL. -- African Myrrh, Herabol Myrrh, Mirra (Sp. It.), Myrrh, Myrrhe (Fr., Ger.), Somali Myrrh; found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Coriandrum sativum L. -- Chinese Parsley, Cilantro, Coriander; found in Fruit
Coridothymus capitatus (L.) REICHB. F. -- Spanish Oregano; found in Shoot
Cuminum cyminum L. -- Cumin; found in Fruit
Cunila origanoides (L.) BRITTON -- American Dittany, Dittany, Frost Flower, Frost Mint, Maryland Dittany, Mountain Dittany, Stone Mint; found in Shoot
Curcuma longa L. -- Indian Saffron, Turmeric; found in Essential Oil
Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex NEES) STAPF -- Lemongrass, West Indian Lemongrass; found in Plant
Cymbopogon flexuosus (NEES ex STEUDEL) J. F. WATSON -- East Indian Lemongrass; found in Plant
Cymbopogon martinii (ROXB.) J. F. WATSON -- Palmarosa, Rosha Grass; found in Plant
Cymbopogon parkeri STAPF -- Skhabar; found in Plant
Cyperus rotundus L. -- Nutsedge; found in Essential Oil
Daucus carota L. -- Carrot; found in Root, Seed , Shoot
Dictamnus albus L. -- Akgiritotu, Burning Bush, Dittany, Gas Plant, Gazelotu; found in Shoot
Dictamnus hispanicus ; found in Shoot
Dracocephalum thymiflora RYDB. -- Thyme-Flowered Moldavica; found in Plant
Echinacea spp -- Coneflower, Echinacea; found in Fruit
Elettaria cardamomum (L.) MATON -- Cardamom; found in Fruit
Elsholtzia blanda BENTH. -- Bantaluki, Bantulsi; found in Shoot
Elsholtzia eriostachya var. pusilla -- 'Dwarf' Bush Mint; found in Shoot
Elsholtzia nipponica OHWI -- Hsiang Ju; found in Plant
Elsholtzia polystachya BENTH. -- Bush Mint; found in Leaf
Eucalyptus citriodora HOOK. -- Citron-Scented Gum, Lemon Eucalyptus, Lemon-Scented Gum, Spotted Gum; found in Leaf
Euodia rutaecarpa BENTH. -- Wou Chou Yu; found in Leaf
Ferula gummosa BOISS. -- Galbanum; found in Plant
Foeniculum vulgare MILLER -- Fennel; found in Fruit, Plant
Gentiana lutea L. -- Gentian, Yellow Gentian; found in Essential Oil
Glechoma hederacea L. -- Alehoof; found in Plant
Hedeoma drummondii BENTH. -- Drummond's Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Hedeoma hispida PURSH. -- Hispid Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) PERS. -- American Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Hedeoma reverchonii GRAY -- Reverchon's Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Helianthus annuus L. -- Girasol, Sunflower; found in Flower
Humulus lupulus L. -- Hops; found in Fruit
Hypericum perforatum L. -- Common St. Johnswort, Goatweed, Hypericum, Klamath Weed, St. John's-wort; found in Plant
Hyptis suaveolens POIT. -- Wild Hops; found in Plant
Hyssopus officinalis L. -- Hyssop; found in Flower, Leaf
Hyssopus officinalis subsp. aristatus (GODR.) BRIQ. -- Hyssop; found in Shoot
Illicium verum HOOK. f. -- Chinese Star Anise, Chinesischer Sternanis (Ger.), Star Anise, Sternanis (Ger.), anis de China (Sp.), anis estrellado (Sp.); found in Fruit
Isanthus brachiatus (L.) BSP -- False Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Juniperus communis L. -- Common Juniper, Juniper; found in Fruit
Juniperus virginiana L. -- Red Cedar; found in Leaf
Larrea tridentata (SESSE & MOC. ex DC.) COV. -- Chaparral, Creosote Bush; found in Essential Oil
Laurus nobilis L. -- Bay, Bay Laurel, Bayleaf, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, Sweet Bay; found in Leaf
Lavandula angustifolia MILLER -- English Lavender; found in Flower
Lavandula latifolia MEDIK. -- Aspic, Broad-Leaved Lavender, Spike Lavender; found in Plant
Lavandula x hybrida BALB. EX GING. -- Hybrid Lavender; found in Shoot
Lavandula x intermedia EMERIC ex LOIS -- Dutch Lavender, Lavandin; found in Plant
Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. -- Lion's Ear; found in Se
Leonurus cardiaca L. -- Motherwort; found in Plant
Lepechinia calycina EPLING -- Epling's Lepechinia; found in Plant
Levisticum officinale KOCH -- Lovage; found in Root
Lippia alba (MILL.) N.E. BR. -- White Lippia; found in Plant
Litsea glaucescens var. glaucescens -- Mexican bay; found in Shoot
Lycopus uniflorus MICHX. -- One-Flowered Bugle; found in Plant
Lycopus virginicus L. -- Bugle; found in Plant
Magnolia denudata DESR. -- Hsin-I, Xin-Yi; found in Bark, Bulb , Flower , Leaf , Twig
Magnolia fargesii CHENG -- Hsin-I, Xin-Yi; found in Flower
Mangifera indica L. -- Mango; found in Flower
Marrubium vulgare L. -- Horehound, White Horehound; found in Plant
Medicago sativa subsp. sativa -- Alfalfa, Lucerne; found in Essential Oil
Melaleuca alternifolia (MAIDEN & BETCHE) CHEEL -- Teatree; found in Leaf
Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. -- Cajeput; found in Plant
Melissa officinalis L. -- Balm, Bee Balm, Lemonbalm, Melissa; found in Shoot
Mentha aquatica L. -- Water Mint; found in Leaf, Shoot
Mentha arvensis var. piperascens MALINV. EX L. H. BAILEY -- Cornmint, Field Mint, Japanese Mint; found in Leaf
Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDS. -- Biblical Mint; found in Shoot
Mentha pulegium L. -- European Pennyroyal; found in Plant
Mentha sp -- Mint; found in Plant
Mentha spicata L. -- Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint; found in Plant
Mentha x piperita subsp. nothosubsp. piperita -- Peppermint; found in Leaf
Mentha x rotundifolia (L.) HUDSON -- Applemint; found in Leaf
Micromeria congesta BOISS. & HAUSSKN. -- Kaya Yarpuzu; found in Leaf
Micromeria croatica ; found in Leaf
Micromeria fruticosa -- Tasnanesi; found in Leaf
Micromeria fruticosa subsp. barbata (BOISS. & KY.) P.H. DAVIS -- Tea Hyssop, Zopha, Zuta; found in Shoot
Micromeria juliana ; found in Leaf
Micromeria myrtifolia BOISS. & HOHEN -- Dagcayi, Haydarotu, Topukcayi; found in Shoot
Micromeria teneriffae ; found in Leaf
Micromeria thymifolia ; found in Leaf
Micromeria varia subsp. thymoides -- Madeiran 'Hyssop'; found in Shoot
Minthostachys mollis (KUNTH.) GRISEB -- Muna, Tipo; found in Shoot
Moldavica thymiflora RYDB. -- Thyme-Flowered Moldavica; found in Plant
Monarda citriodora CERV. EX LAGASCA -- Lemon Mint; found in Flower, Leaf , Plant
Monarda clinopodia L. -- Clinopod Bergamot; found in Plant
Monarda didyma L. -- Beebalm, Oswego Tea; found in Flower, Leaf , Plant
Monarda fistulosa L. -- Wild Bergamot; found in Plant
Monarda lindheimeri ENGL. & GRAY -- Lindheimer's Monarda; found in Plant
Monarda media WILLD. -- Mean Monarda; found in Plant
Monarda punctata L. -- Horsemint; found in Plant
Monarda russeliana NUTT. ex SIMS -- Russel's Monarda; found in Plant
Myrica cerifera L. -- Bayberry, Candle-Berry, Southern Bayberry, Wax Myrtle; found in Leaf
Myristica fragrans HOUTT. -- Mace, Muskatnussbaum (Ger.), Nutmeg, nogal moscado (Sp.), nuez moscada (Sp.); found in Seed
Myrtus communis L. -- Arrayan (Sp.), Mirto (Sp.), Myrte (Ger.), Myrtle; found in Plant
Nepeta racemosa LAM. -- Catmint; found in Shoot
Ocimum basilicum L. -- Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Plant
Ocimum gratissimum L. -- Agbo, Shrubby Basil; found in Flower, Leaf , Plant , Shoot
Ocimum kilimandscharicum GUERKE -- African Blue Basil, Kenyan Perennial Basil; found in Flower, Leaf
Ocimum tenuiflorum L. -- Anise-Scented Basil; found in Leaf
Origanum majorana L. -- Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram; found in Plant
Origanum minutiflorum O. SCHWARZ & P.H. DAVIS -- Small-Flowered Oregano; found in Shoot
Origanum onites L. -- Oregano, Pot Marjoram; found in Plant, Shoot
Origanum sipyleum L. -- Bayircayi, Guveyoto; found in Shoot
Origanum syriacum L. -- Za'Atar; found in Shoot
Origanum vulgare L. -- Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (LINK) IETSWAART -- Common Turkish Oregano, Greek Oregano, Wild Oregano; found in Shoot
Origanum vulgare var. gracile (C. KOCH) IETSWAART -- Slender Turkish Oregano; found in Plant
Origanum vulgare var. hirtum (LINK) IETSWAART -- Istanbul Kekigi, Turkish Oregano; found in Plant
Origanum vulgare var. viride (BOISS.) HAYEK -- Green Turkish Oregano; found in Plant
Pastinaca sativa L. -- Parsnip; found in Root
Pelargonium graveolens (L.) L'HER ex AIT. -- Rose Geranium, Scented Geranium; found in Essential Oil
Perilla frutescens (L.) BRITTON -- Perilla; found in Plant
Petroselinum crispum (MILLER) NYMAN EX A. W. HILLL -- Parsley; found in Leaf, Seed
Peumus boldus MOLINA -- Boldo; found in Leaf
Phyllanthus niruri L. -- Seed On The Leaf; found in Leaf
Pilocarpus jaborandi HOLMES -- Indian Hemp, Pernambuco Jaborandi; found in Leaf
Pilocarpus microphyllus STAPF -- Maranhao Jaborandi; found in Leaf
Pimenta dioica (L.) MERR. -- Allspice, Clover-Pepper, Jamaica-Pepper, Pimenta, Pimento; found in Fruit
Pimenta racemosa (MILL.) J. W. MOORE -- Bayrum Tree, West Indian Bay; found in Leaf
Pimpinella anisum L. -- Anise, Sweet Cumin; found in Fruit
Pinus sylvestris L. -- Scotch Pine; found in Resin, Exudate, Sap
Piper cubeba L. f. -- Cubeb, Cubeb Pepper; found in Fruit
Plectranthus incanus LINK. -- Lal Agada; found in Shoot
Pogostemon cablin (BLANCO) BENTH. -- Patchouli; found in Plant
Prunus armeniaca L. -- Apricot; found in Essential Oil
Psidium guajava L. -- Guava; found in Fruit
Psoralea corylifolia L. -- Babchi, Black Dot, Malaya Tea; found in Seed
Pycnanthemum albescens TORR. & GRAY -- White Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum beadlei (SMALL) FERNALD -- Beadle's Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum californicum TORR. -- California Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides TORR. & GRAY -- Clinopod Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum curvipes (GREENE) GRANT & EPLING -- Curved Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum incanum (L.) MICHX. -- Hoary Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum loomisii NUTT. -- Loomis' Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum montanum MICHX. -- Montane Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum muticum (MICHX.) PERS. -- Muticous Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum pilosum NUTT. -- Pilose Mountain Mint; found in Flower, Leaf
Pycnanthemum pycnanthemoides (LEAVENW.) FERNALD -- Typical Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum setosum NUTT. -- Setose Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium SCHRAD. -- Slenderleaf Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum torreyi BENTH. -- Torrey's Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum verticillatum (MICHX.) PERS. -- Whorled Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) DURAND & JACKSON -- Virginia Mountain Mint; found in Shoot
Ribes nigrum L. -- Black Currant; found in Fruit, Leaf
Rosa damascena MILLER -- Damask Rose; found in Essential Oil
Rosmarinus eriocalyx JORDAN & FOURR. -- Rosemary; found in Shoot
Rosmarinus officinalis L. -- Rosemary; found in Leaf, Plant , Shoot
Rosmarinus tomentosus HUBER-MORATH & MAIRE -- Hairy Rosemary; found in Shoot
Rosmarinus x lavandulaceus DE NOE -- Lavender Rosemary; found in Shoot
Rosmarinus x mendizabalii SAGREDO EX ROSUA -- Mendizabali's Rosemary; found in Shoot
Ruta graveolens L. -- Rue; found in Plant
Salvia dorisiana STANDL. -- 'Honduran' Sage; found in Shoot
Salvia gilliesii BENTH. -- 'Cordoba' Sage; found in Shoot
Salvia officinalis L. -- Sage; found in Plant
Salvia sclarea L. -- Clary Sage; found in Plant
Salvia triloba L. -- Greek Sage; found in Plant
Santolina chamaecyparissus L. -- Lavender Cotton; found in Plant
Satureja cilicica P.H. DAVIS -- Turkish Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja cuneifolia TEN. -- Cuneate Turkish Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja douglasii (BENTH.) BRIQ. -- Douglas' Savory; found in Plant
Satureja glabella (MICHX.) BRIQ. -- Smooth Savory; found in Plant
Satureja grandiflora (L.) SCHEELE -- French Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja hortensis L. -- Summer Savory; found in Plant
Satureja montana L. -- Savory, Winter Savory; found in Plant
Satureja obovata LAG. -- Iberian Savory, Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja odora (GRIS.) EPL. -- Scented Pampa Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja parvifolia (PHIL.) EPL. -- Small-Leaf Pampa Savory; found in Shoot
Satureja subspicata subsp. liburnica -- Yugoslav Savory; found in Plant
Satureja thymbra L. -- Goat Oregano; found in Shoot
Scutellaria galericulata L. -- Marsh Skullcap; found in Plant
Sideritis athoa PAPANIKOLAOU ET KOKKINI -- Kedi Kuyrugu Cayi; found in Shoot
Sideritis germanicolpitana BORNM; found in Plant
Sideritis mugronensis ; found in Flower, Leaf
Sideritis pauli PAU -- El Molinillo Sideritis; found in Shoot
Stachys germanica L. -- Downy Woundwort; found in Plant
Tamarindus indica L. -- Indian Tamarind, Kilytree, Tamarind; found in Fruit
Teucrium arduini L. -- 'Croatian Alpine' Germander; found in Shoot
Teucrium asiaticum L.; found in Shoot
Teucrium cyprium BOISS. -- 'Cyprus' Germander; found in Leaf
Teucrium divaricatum var. canescens (CELAK.) HOLMBOE -- Hoary Divaricate Germander; found in Leaf
Teucrium gnaphalodes L'HER. -- Iberian Germander; found in Shoot
Teucrium kotschyanum POECH -- Stavros Kotschy's Germander; found in Leaf
Teucrium micropodioides ROUY -- Small 'Cyprus' Germander; found in Leaf
Teucrium oxylepis subsp. marianum RUIZ DE LA TORRE; found in Shoot
Teucrium oxylepis subsp. oxylepis ; found in Shoot
Teucrium polium L. -- Golden Germander; found in Plant
Teucrium polium var. valentinum -- Golden Germander, Iberian Golden Germander; found in Shoot
Teucrium pseudoscorodonia DESF.; found in Shoot
Teucrium salviastrum SCHREBER; found in Shoot
Teucrium scorodonia L. -- Germander, Wood Germander; found in Shoot
Thuja occidentalis L. -- Arbor-Vitae, Northern White-Cedar; found in Branches
Thymus broussonettii BOISS. -- Moroccan Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus capitatus (L.) HOFFM. -- 'Sicilian' Thyme, Spanish Origanum, Spanish Thyme; found in Plant, Shoot
Thymus cilicicus BOISS. & BAL. -- 'Anatolian' Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus funkii COUSS. -- Funk's Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus longicaulis C. PRESL -- Kekik, Tas Kekik; found in Shoot
Thymus mastichina L. -- Spanish Marjoram; found in Plant
Thymus orospedanus H. del VILLAR -- Orosped Thyme; found in Plant
Thymus riatarum HUMBERT & MAIRE -- 'Moroccan' Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus saturejoides -- Moroccan Savory Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus serpyllum L. -- Creeping Thyme; found in Plant
Thymus vulgaris L. -- Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant
Thymus x citriodorus (PERS.) SCHREB. -- Funk's thyme, Lemon Thyme; found in Plant
Thymus zygis L. -- Spanish Thyme; found in Shoot
Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris -- 'Portuguese' Thyme; found in Shoot
Tilia sp. -- Basswood, Lime, Linden; found in Flower
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) SPRAGUE ex TURRILL -- Ajwan; found in Fruit
Trichostemma dichotomum L. -- Blue Curls; found in Shoot
Umbellularia californica (HOOK. & ARN.) NUTT. -- California Bay; found in Plant
Vaccinium corymbosum L. -- Blueberry; found in Fruit
Valeriana officinalis L. -- Common Valerian, Garden-Heliotrope, Valerian; found in Root
Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) NASH -- Cus-Cus, Cuscus Grass, Vetiver; found in Root
Vitex agnus-castus L. -- Chaste-Tree; found in Leaf
Vitis vinifera L. -- European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Parra (Sp.), Vid (Sp.), Vigne Vinifere (Fr.), Weinrebe (Ger.), Wine Grape; found in Plant
Zanthoxylum alatum ROXB. -- Indian Prickly Ash, Wartara Oil Tree; found in Fruit
Zea mays L. -- Corn; found in Silk Essent. Oil
Zingiber officinale ROSCOE -- Ginger; found in Rhizome

 

Observations

For iPad/iPhone users: tap letter twice to get list of items.