Some science behind the scenes
The human body carries about 100 trillion microorganisms in its intestines, a number ten times greater than the total number of human cells in the body. It is estimated that these gut flora have around a hundred times as many genes in aggregate as there are in the human genome.
Bacteria make up most of the flora in the colon. Somewhere between 300 and 1000 different species live in the gut, with most estimates at about 500. However, it is probable that 99% of the bacteria come from about 30 or 40 species.
Fungi, protozoa, and archaea also make up a part of the gut flora, but little is known about their activities, all that is known is they work for us, not against us.
Not all the species in the gut have been identified because most cannot be cultured, and identification is difficult.
The four dominant phylum in the human gut are Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Most bacteria belong to the genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Bifidobacterium. Other genera, such as Escherichia and Lactobacillus, are present to a lesser extent.
Species from the genus Bacteroides alone constitute about 30% of all bacteria in the gut, suggesting that this genus is especially important in the functioning of the host. The currently known genera of fungi of the gut flora include Candida, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. Archaea constitute another large class of gut flora which are important in the metabolism of the bacterial products of fermentation.
This is a very very good TED talk about intestinal flora and our microbial community in general
Jonathan Eisen: Meet your microbes
For iPad/iPhone users: tap letter twice to get list of items.
- Acute Exposure to Commonly Ingested Emulsifiers Alters Intestinal Mucus Structure and Transport Properties
- Autoimmune diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and the microbiome in schizophrenia: more than a gut feeling
- Bacteria May One Day Cure Food Allergies
- Bees – Lectures by Rudolf Steiner - Too much honey upsets the acid/alkaline balance
- Bisphenol A alters gut microbiome: Comparative metagenomics analysis
- Chocolate and the immune response
- Dr Natasha Campbell-McBride - Food is the Best Medicine
- Dr Natasha Campbell-McBride - The Gut and Psychology Syndrome (GAPS) Diet
- Dr Terry Wahls - Feeding Your Microbiome and going organic
- Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study
- Immune protection of human milk
- In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output
- Leibniz - Letter to Damaris Masham - The aggregates of the body
- Metagenomic testing as a means of determining the cause of mental illness
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogen causing colorectal cancer
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Autism and Mood disorders
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Eczema
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Heart Disease
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Hypertension
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing IBS and diarrhoea
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Kidney disease
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Parkinson's disease
- Metagenomic testing as a means of identifying the pathogens causing Schizophrenia and Manic depression
- Metagenomic testing for pathogens in gut and mouth in patients with Alzheimer's disease
- Modulation of gut microbiota by polyphenols from adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf.) in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
- Perinatal antibiotic-induced shifts in gut microbiota have differential effects on inflammatory lung diseases.
- Potential prebiotic properties of almond (Amygdalus communis L.) seeds
- Prebiotic effects of almonds and almond skins on intestinal microbiota in healthy adult humans
- Red Ginseng and Semen Coicis can improve the structure of gut microbiota and relieve the symptoms of ulcerative colitis
- The microbiome-gut-brain axis: implications for schizophrenia and antipsychotic induced weight gain
- Toxic wheat in the USA and UK