Some science behind the scenes

Epinephrine / Adrenaline

Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Like norepinephrine it increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system.

Adrenaline when used as a drug – so in overdose proportions – is used to treat cardiac arrest and other cardiac dysrhythmias resulting in diminished or absent cardiac output. Its actions are to increase peripheral resistance via alpha 1 receptor-dependent vasoconstriction and to increase cardiac output via its binding to beta 1 receptors. So it has an almost identical effect to the noradrenaline – again causing hypoxia.