Some science behind the scenes

Benzodiazepine deaths

Alprazolam

  • Alprazolam - On Aug, 9, 2015: 32,486 people reported to have side effects when taking Alprazolam. Among them, 997 people (3.07%) have Death.
    Xanax - On Aug, 27, 2015: 55,148 people reported to have side effects when taking Xanax. Among them, 925 people (1.68%) have Death

Clonazepam

  • Clonazepam - On Aug, 5, 2015: 38,885 people reported to have side effects when taking Clonazepam. Among them, 890 people (2.29%) have Death.
    Klonopin - On Aug, 13, 2015: 28,849 people reported to have side effects when taking Klonopin. Among them, 378 people (1.31%) have Death

Diazepam

  • Diazepam - On Aug, 29, 2015: 31,740 people reported to have side effects when taking Diazepam. Among them, 913 people (2.88%) have Death
  • Valium - On Aug, 1, 2015: 20,078 people reported to have side effects when taking Valium. Among them, 446 people (2.22%) have Death

Temazepam

  • Temazepam - On Aug, 17, 2015: 14,991 people reported to have side effects when taking Temazepam. Among them, 637 people (4.25%) have Death
  • Restoril - On Aug, 13, 2015: 7,297 people reported to have side effects when taking Restoril. Among them, 185 people (2.54%) have Death

Lorazepam

  • Lorazepam - On Aug, 4, 2015: 45,137 people reported to have side effects when taking Lorazepam. Among them, 1,105 people (2.45%) have Death
  • Ativan - On Aug, 2, 2015: 33,087 people reported to have side effects when taking Ativan. Among them, 855 people (2.58%) have Death

Midazolam

  • Versed - On Aug, 29, 2015: 4,875 people reported to have side effects when taking Versed. Among them, 596 people (12.23%) have Death
  • Midazolam - On Aug, 29, 2015: 1,054 people reported to have side effects when taking Midazolam hydrochloride. Among them, 23 people (2.18%) have Death

Oxazepam

  • Oxazepam - On Aug, 23, 2015: 6,827 people reported to have side effects when taking Oxazepam. Among them, 160 people (2.34%) have Death
  • Serax - On Aug, 7, 2015: 1,095 people reported to have side effects when taking Serax. Among them, 21 people (1.92%) have Death.

Triazolam

  • Triazolam - On Aug, 29, 2015: 2,232 people reported to have side effects when taking Triazolam. Among them, 23 people (1.03%) have Death
  • Halcion - On Aug, 29, 2015: 4,978 people reported to have side effects when taking Halcion. Among them, 107 people (2.15%) have Death

Chlordiazepoxide

  • Chlordiazepoxide - On Aug, 5, 2015: 104 people reported to have side effects when taking Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. Among them, 1 people (0.96%) has Death
  • Librium - On Aug, 7, 2015: 1,549 people reported to have side effects when taking Librium. Among them, 21 people (1.36%) have Death

Clorazepate

  • Tranxene - On Jul, 30, 2015: 3,728 people reported to have side effects when taking Tranxene. Among them, 55 people (1.48%) have Death
  • Clorazepate - On Aug, 13, 2015: 1,629 people reported to have side effects when taking Clorazepate dipotassium. Among them, 38 people (2.33%) have Death

Flurazepam

  • Dalmane - On Aug, 29, 2015: 1,004 people reported to have side effects when taking Dalmane. Among them, 18 people (1.79%) have Death
  • Flurazepam - On Aug, 29, 2015: 167 people reported to have side effects when taking Flurazepam hydrochloride. Among them, 2 people (1.20%) have Death

Estazolam

  • Estazolam - On Aug, 18, 2015: 1,104 people reported to have side effects when taking Estazolam. Among them, 31 people (2.81%) have Death
  • Prosom - On Aug, 29, 2015: 258 people reported to have side effects when taking Prosom. Among them, 2 people (0.78%) have Death

Prazepam - On Aug, 7, 2015: 1,329 people reported to have side effects when taking Prazepam. Among them, 20 people (1.50%) have Death

 Quazepam

  • Doral - On Aug, 14, 2015: 770 people reported to have side effects when taking Doral. Among them, 13 people (1.69%) have Death

 TOTAL DEATHS 8,462

 

The table below shows practically all the 35 benzodiazepines available medically. 

Drug Name

Time to Peak (Onset of action in hours)

Elimination Half-Life) [active metabolite]

Alprazolam

1-2

6–12 hours

Bretazenil

?

2.5 hours

Bromazepam

1-3

10–20 hours

Brotizolam

0.5-2

4–5 hours

Chlordiazepoxide

1.5-4

5–30 hours [36–200 hours]

Cinolazepam

0.5-2

9 hours

Clonazepam

1-4

18–50 hours

Cloxazolam

2-5 (?)

18–50 hours

Clorazepate

Variable

36–100 hours

Delorazepam

1-2

60–140 hours

Diazepam

1-1.5

20–100 hours [36-200]

Estazolam

1-5

10–24 hours

Etizolam

1-2

6 hours

Flunitrazepam

0.5-3

18–26 hours [36–200 hours]

Flurazepam

1-1.5

40–250 hours

Flutoprazepam

0.5-9

60–90 hours

Halazepam

1-3

30–100 hours

Ketazolam

2.5-3

30–100 hours [36-200]

Loprazolam

0.5-4

6–12 hours

Lorazepam

2-4

10–20 hours

Lormetazepam

0.5-2

10–12 hours

Medazepam

?

36–200 hours

Midazolam

0.5-1

3 hours (1.8–6 hours)

Nimetazepam

0.5-3

14–30 hours

Nitrazepam

0.5-7

15–38 hours

Nordazepam

?

50–120 hours

Oxazepam ****

3-4

4–15 hours

Phenazepam ***

1.5-4

60 hours

Pinazepam **

?

40–100 hours

Prazepam

2-6

36–200 hours

Premazepam

2-6

10–13 hours

Quazepam

1-5

39–120 hours

Temazepam

0.5-3

8–22 hours

Tetrazepam *

1-3

3–26 hours

Triazolam

0.5-2

2 hours

 *  Tetrazepam was marketed under the following brand names, Clinoxan, Epsipam, Myolastan, Musaril, Relaxam and Spasmorelax and was formerly used mainly in Austria, France, Belgium, Germany and Spain. The European Commission confirmed the suspension of the marketing authorisations for Tetrazepam in Europe because of cutaneous toxicity, effective from the 1 August 2013.

** Pinazepam - marketed under the brand names Domar and Duna

***  Phenazepam was developed in the Soviet Union in 1974 and now produced in Russia and some CIS countries.  It is abused in other countries.

**** Oxazepam -  is marketed in English-speaking countries under the brand names Alepam, Bonare, Medopam, Murelax, Noripam, Opamox, Ox-Pam, Purata, Serax and Serepax, as Vaben in Israel, as Sobril and Oxascand in Sweden, as Oxapax in Denmark, as Sobril and Alopam in Norway, as Sobril or Oxascand in Iceland and Sweden, Zaxpam in India, and Praxiten in Croatia. Marketed in French-speaking countries as Seresta