Some science behind the scenes
Anti-histamines other drugs
This list shows other products that either have no record of involuntary hallucinations, or which have no record but do have some record of abuse. It also includes those which have a record of involuntary experiences, but of fairly low figures. In addition some drugs that are simply derivatives of the ones already described are also included – such as Benadryl. The reason that a drug may have no record of hallucinations may be because it is not available in the USA.
Acrivastine - Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever. It is a second-generation H1-receptor antagonist antihistamine and works by blocking Histamine H1 receptors. It is sold under the brand name Benadryl Allergy Relief in the U.K., not to be confused with Benadryl Once a Day, which is cetirizine. It is available as an over-the-counter medication in the UK. In the U.S., acrivastine is the active ingredient in the Semprex-D brand. Semprex-D is also acrivastine-based, but contains a decongestant, pseudoephedrine.
Alimemazine - also known as trimeprazine; trade names Nedeltran, Panectyl, Repeltin, Therafene, Theraligene, Theralen, Theralene, Vallergan, Vanectyl, or Temaril), is used as an antipruritic (it prevents itching from causes such as eczema or poison ivy, by acting as an antihistamine). It also acts as a sedative, hypnotic and anti-emetic for prevention of motion sickness. It is no longer available in the United States. It is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Antazoline is a 1st generation antihistamine and an H1 receptor antagonist that also anticholinergic properties used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops
Azatadine is an antihistamine and anticholinergic and an H1 receptor antagonist
Bamipine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used as an antipruritic. It is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Bepotastine (Talion) is an H1 receptor antagonist used in Japan for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria/pruritus
Bromazine (Amrodyl), also known as bromodiphenhydramine, is an H1 receptor antagonist
Brompheniramine - Bromfed, Dimetapp , Bromfenex, Dimetane, BPN, Lodrane), is an over the counter drug used in the treatment of the symptoms of the common cold and allergic rhinitis, such as runny nose, itchy eyes, watery eyes, and sneezing. It is a first-generation antihistamine and an antagonist of histamine H1 receptors
Buclizine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist. It is marketed as an antiemetic, similar to meclozine and under the name Migraleve to migraine sufferers.
Captodiame also known as captodiamine, is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist sold under the trade names Covatine, Covatix, and Suvren which is used as a sedative and anxiolytic. . It is a derivative of diphenhydramine
Carbinoxamine (Clistin, Palgic) is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist. It is used for hay fever; vasomotor rhinitis; mild urticaria; angioedema, dermatographism and allergic conjunctivitis.
Chlorcyclizine (Di-Paralene, Mantadil, Pruresidine, Trihistan) is a first-generation antihistamine and an H1 receptor antagonist used primarily to treat allergy symptoms such as rhinitis, urticaria, and pruritus
Chloropyramine is a classical ("old" or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. Related indications for clinical use include allergic reactions to insect bites, food and drug allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Chloropyramine is an H1 inverse agonist, meaning that it exerts its pharmacological action by competing with histamine for the H1 subtype histamine receptor.
Chlorothen is an antihistamine and a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Chlorphenoxamine (Phenoxene) is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Cinnarizine (Stugeron, Stunarone) is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist which is mainly used for the control of nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness
Clemastine, also known as meclastin is a a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Clobenzepam isa first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Clocinizine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Cyclizine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operatively following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. The drug Diconal is a combination of cyclizine with the opioid dipipanone. Diconal has been discontinued in the US for its high abuse potential. Some people using methadone recreationally combine cyclizine with their methadone dose, a combination that is known to produce strong psychoactive effects. It has also been used recreationally by teenagers to induce hallucinations.
Forensic toxicology in urban South Africa
Stewart MJ, Moar JJ, Mwesigwa J, Kokot M.
University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, South Africa.
An analysis has been made of the pattern of deaths due to poisoning in South Africa over the period 1991-1996.
The database held by the Forensic Science Service Laboratory, covering the period 1991-1996 was analyzed.
Agricultural chemicals are a major cause of mortality. Among drugs of abuse, combinations of methaqualone/diphenhydramine and cyclizine/dipipanone contribute a disproportionately high percentage of cases. Metal poisoning is common as are cases of poisoning attributed to remedies prescribed by traditional healers.
Dacemazine, also known as Ahistan and Histantine is a a first generation H1 receptor antagonist. It was never marketed as a drug on its own, although a combination of dacemazine and di-tert-butylnaphthalenesulfonate was sold as an antispasmodic and antitussive under the trade name Codopectyl
Deptropine (Brontina) also known as dibenzheptropine, is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Dexbrompheniramine (Drixoral) is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. It is marketed under the name Drixoral in the US and Canada, which is a combination of dexbrompheniramine and pseudoephedrine.
Dimetindene (Fenistil) is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist used orally and locally as an antipruritic.
Embramine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Etymemazineis a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Histapyrrodine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Homochlorcyclizine is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist marketed in Japan
Hydroxyethylpromethazine - is a first generation H1 receptor antagonist
Isopromethazine - is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist
Isothipendyl - is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist
Mepyramine, also known as pyrilamine, is a first generation antihistamine, targeting the H1 receptor. Like all first generation antihistamines, it rapidly permeates the brain often causing drowsiness. It is used in over-the-counter combination products to treat the common cold and menstrual symptoms. It is also the active ingredient of the topical antihistamine creams Anthisan and Neoantergan, sold for the treatment of insect bites, stings and nettle rash
Mequitazine (Primalan) is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist. It is used to treat allergies and rhinitis.
Methafurylene is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist
Methapyrilene is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist. It has relatively strong sedative effects, to the extent that its primary use was as a medication for insomnia rather than for its antihistamine action. Together with scopolamine, it used to be the main ingredient in Sominex, Nytol, and Sleep-Eze. It also provided the sedative component of Excedrin PM. All of these products were reformulated in the late 1970s because methapyrilene was demonstrated to cause liver cancer in rats
Methdilazine (Dilosyn, Tacaryl) is a first-generation antihistamine.
Moxastine is a first-generation antihistamine.
Oxatomide is a first-generation antihistamine In addition to its H1 receptor antagonism, it also possesses antiserotonergic actions.
Oxomemazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist used for the treatment of cough.
Phenindamine (Nolahist, Thephorin) was a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist used to treat symptoms of the common cold and allergies, such as sneezing, itching, rashes, and hives.
The product is no longer available.
Pheniramine (Avil) is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. It has relatively strong sedative effects, and has been used ‘off-label’ as an over-the-counter sleeping pill in a similar manner to other sedating antihistamines such as diphenhydramine. Pheniramine is generally sold in combination with other medications, rather than as a stand-alone drug, although some formulations are available containing pheniramine by itself. As an example, Neo Citran contains pheniramine.
Phenyltoloxamine is a first generation H1 histamine antagonist. It has, like most first generation anthistamines, sedative effects. What makes it rather interesting is that it is widely used in many many other preparations as an “enhancing agent”. It is found in some analgesics and antitussives along with acetaminophen and aspirin, but also opiates such as dihydrocodeine, codeine and hydrocodone. Given the potentiating efffects of anthistamines on opiates this combination must be very ‘interesting’.
It is also sometimes used by itself or in addition to dextromethorphan.
Perhaps one of the most extraordinary features is that it is used in some proprietary preparations available over the counter for backache, muscle strains and similar conditions. This brilliant bit of marketing understatement says it all ….
“Phenyltoloxamine is one of the more effective potentiators of codeine and derivatives such as ethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, nicocodeine, hydrocodone and similar drugs like tramadol and propoxyphene for all indications [sic!] including pain relief”.
Trade names include
Ed-Flex, Dologesic, Duraxin, Flextra-650, Novagesic, Pain-gesic, Phenylgesic, Percogesic - North America
Codipront - Europe/South America
Codivis - Israel
Pimethixene is a first generation antihistamine used to treat hyperactivity, anxiety, sleep disorders, and allergy. It is also used for anesthesia.
Piperoxan, also known as benodaine or benzodioxane, is a first generation antihistamine drug, the very first antihistamine ever to be discovered. It was prepared in the early 1930s by Daniel Bovet and Ernest Fourneau at the Pasteur Institute in France
Propiomazine (Largon, Propavan, Serentin, Indorm, Dorevane, Dorevan) is a first generation antihistamine blocking H1 receptors. It is used to treat insomnia, to produce sleepiness or drowsiness, and to relieve anxiety before or during surgery or other procedures such as labor.
Pyrrobutamine - is a first generation H1 antagonist
Talastine (Ahanon) - is a first generation H1 antagonist
Thenalidine - is a first generation H1 antagonist
Thenyldiamine - is a first generation H1 antagonist
Thiazinamium metilsulfate or thiazinam is a first generation H1 antagonist . The USAN is thiazinamium chloride
Thonzylamine is a first generation H1 antagonist
Tolpropamine is a first generation H1 antagonist