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Scotch thistle cancer and in vivo activity



Type of Spiritual Experience


Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living";) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms usually animals including humans

Nigella sativa is a type of black-cumin, also known as nigella or kalonji

Allium sativum, is commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus,

Allium cepa is the onion

A description of the experience

Phytother Res. 2001 Mar;15(2):109-13.

Augmentation of natural killer cell activity in vivo against tumour cells by some wild plants from Jordan.

Abuharfeil NM1, Salim M, Von Kleist S.

  • 1Department of Applied Biology, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan. harfeil@just.edu.jo


Twelve aqueous extracts prepared from Jordanian plants that are currently used in traditional medicine to treat various types of cancer were tested in mice for their augmentation of natural killer cells in vivo in generating cytotoxicity against YAC tumour targets.

After 1 week of oral administration of aqueous extracts of fresh Nigella sativum (N.s.) seeds and Allium sativum (A.s.) bulbs significant augmentation of splenic natural killer (NK) cells (62.3% +/- 6.4% and 52.6% +/-5.4% cytotoxicity, respectively), was obtained in comparison with spontaneous activity (24.5% +/- 1.6%) at 200:1 effector:target ratio.

Onopordum acanthium (O.a.) stem and leaves and Allium cepa (A.c.) bulbs showed intermediate augmentation (38.6% +/- 3.8% and 30.6% +/- 3.4% cytotoxicity, respectively) while the rest showed insignificant augmentation activity.

The fresh aqueous extract of a mixture of the plants with high and intermediate activity showed little insignificant augmentation activity (72.7% +/- 6.7% cytotoxicity) of NK cells compared with that obtained with each plant alone.

Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID:  11268107

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps





Nigella seeds
Onions and garlic
Scotch thistle