Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)


This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)

Observations placeholder

Pursed lip breathing improves exercise tolerance in COPD: a randomized crossover study



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2015 Feb;51(1):79-88. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Pursed lip breathing improves exercise tolerance in COPD: a randomized crossover study.

Cabral LF1, D'Elia Tda C, Marins Dde S, Zin WA, Guimarães FS.

BACKGROUND:  Although pursed-lip breathing (PLB) has been advocated to reduce respiratory rate and improve oxygen saturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at rest, the evidence of its effects on dynamic hyperinflation (DH) and exercise tolerance is scarce.

AIM:  To evaluate the effect of PLB on exercise tolerance, breathing pattern, dynamic hyperinflation and arterial oxygenation in COPD patients during high-intensity exercise.

DESIGN:  Randomized crossover study.

SETTING:  Laboratory of Respiration Physiology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

POPULATION:  Forty stable COPD patients aged 40-75 years and with FEV1<60%.

METHODS:  In a randomized order, all patients performed PLB and control breathing (CB) during constant work-rate exercise in an electrically-braked cycloergometer. Dynamic hyperinflation, oxygen saturation and breathing pattern were recorded at rest, in isotime and in peak exercise.

RESULTS:  The nine patients who increased their endurance time by more than 25% during PLB (6.42 ± 2.36 vs. 10.51 ± 3.83 min; P < 0.05) were considered as the Improver sub-group. Compared to the Non-improver subgroup, these patients presented a lower expiratory peak flow - EPF (40.2 ± 8.6 vs. 53.3 ± 17.8 % predicted, P<0.05). The ROC Curve analysis of the EPF as a percentage of the predicted values (%pred) was performed to identify cut-off values that had greater sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between IMPROVER and NON-IMPROVER. We observed 61% sensitivity and 89% specificity with a 47.7% pred EPF. At isotime, PLB yielded higher inspiratory capacity (IC) and oxygen saturation (1.19 ± 0.33 to 1.35 ± 0.39 L; P < 0.05 and 93.1 ± 4.6 to 94.0 ± 4.1%; P<0.05), and lower respiratory rate than CB only in Improver. Non-improver patients showed thoracoabdominal asynchrony during PLB in isotime. At peak exercise, PLB improved the arterial oxygenation in Improver, but there were no changes in the breathing pattern in the analyzed subgroups.

CONCLUSION:  In COPD patients with low PEF, pursed-lip breathing reduces dynamic hyperinflation and improves exercise tolerance, breathing pattern and arterial oxygenation at submaximal intensity exercise.

CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT:  This study points to a possible application of PLB in a selected group of COPD patients aiming at improving the exercise tolerance. PEF measurements can help to indicate PLB for COPD patients.

PMID: 24691248

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps



Lung disease


Controlled breathing


Kaki mudra