Does heaven exist? With well over 100,000 plus recorded and described spiritual experiences collected over 15 years, to base the answer on, science can now categorically say yes. Furthermore, you can see the evidence for free on the website allaboutheaven.org.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)


This book, which covers Visions and hallucinations, explains what causes them and summarises how many hallucinations have been caused by each event or activity. It also provides specific help with questions people have asked us, such as ‘Is my medication giving me hallucinations?’.

Available on Amazon
also on all local Amazon sites, just change .com for the local version (.co.uk, .jp, .nl, .de, .fr etc.)

Observations placeholder

Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Four Species of Cola Schott & Endl. (Sterculiaceae)



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6(4): 518–525.
Published online 2009 Jul 3.
PMCID: PMC2816472
PMID: 20606771
Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Four Species of Cola Schott & Endl. (Sterculiaceae)
Mubo Adeola Sonibare,1 Micheal O Soladoye,2 Oyedokun O Esan,2 and Oluwadayo O Sonibare 3

The in-vitro antimicrobial evaluation of ethanol extracts of four species of Cola Schott & Endl. was done using human isolated strains of

  • Staphylococcus aureus,
  • Staphylococcus albus,
  • Bacillus subtilis,
  • Klebsiella pneumonia,
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • Candida albicans,
  • Aspergillus niger

as test organisms. The assays were carried out by agar well diffusion, erythromycin and ketoconazole served as the control drugs. The leaf ethanol extracts of the plants were found to be more effective against the tested fungi than the bacteria at high concentrations.

None of the extracts was active against Staphylococcus aureus.

Plant extract of C. acuminata (P. Beauv.) Schott & Endl. and C. nitida (Vent) Schott & Endl. showed activity on S. albus at concentrations ranging from 10–150 mgml− having comparable diameters of zone of inhibition of 7.3±0.03–16.0±0.0 for C. acuminata and 10.0±0.0–19.0±0.0 for C. nitida.

Also, these two species of Cola demonstrated activities on C. albicans and A. niger at concentrations ranging from 90–150mgml−1 with relatively close diameters of zone of inhibition.

Only C. acuminata inhibited the growth of K. pneumoniae at the MIC of 90mgml−1 whereas, C. albicans was inhibited by C. acuminata, C. millenii K. Schum and C. gigantea A.Chev. at the MIC of 120mgml−1.

Phytochemical screening of the four species of Cola showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and cardenolides in all the plants which apart from showing the probable closeness of the species could also be responsible for the observed activities.

The antimicrobial property shown by the plant extracts is an evidence of the ethnomedicinal uses of the plants. The similarity observed in the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activities demonstrated by C nitida (Vent.) Schott & Endl., C. millenii and C.gigantea A. Chev. and C. acuminata suggest a probable closeness among these species. The results obtained in this study provide preliminary evidence of the chemotaxonomic significance of secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activities in infra-generic taxonomy of species of Cola.

Keywords: Cola species, Sterculiaceae, phytochemical screening, antimicrobial studies, taxonomy

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps