Observations placeholder

Mandukya Upanishad



Type of Spiritual Experience


There are seven notes in the scale (swaras), in Indian music. These are named shadja, rishabh, gandhar, madhyam, pancham, dhaivat and nishad, usually shortened to Sa, Ri (Carnatic) or Re (Hindustani), Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, and Ni and written S, R, G, M, P, D, N.

The octave is not denoted by the octave symbol as it is in Western music. Instead, a dot above a letter indicates that the note is sung one octave higher, and a dot below indicates one octave lower. Or, if a note with the same name-Sa, for example-is an octave higher than the note represented by S, an apostrophe is placed to the right: S'. If it is an octave lower, the apostrophe is placed to the left: 'S. Apostrophes can be added as necessary to indicate the octave: for example, ``g would be the note komal Ga in the octave two octaves below that which begins on the note S (that is, two octaves below g).

A description of the experience

Mandukya Upanishad

OM This eternal Word is all; what was, what is and what shall be and what beyond is in eternity. All is OM

The source of the experience

Upanishads, the

Concepts, symbols and science items


Word, the


Science Items

Activities and commonsteps