Liver disease, Vitamin D deficiency and Hepatitis C
Type of Spiritual Experience
A description of the experience
Liver Int. 2013 Mar;33(3):338-52. doi: 10.1111/liv.12106. Vitamin D in chronic liver disease. Stokes CS1, Volmer DA, Grünhage F, Lammert F.
Chronic liver disease (CLD) and several related extrahepatic manifestations such as hepatic osteodystrophy are associated with deficiency of vitamin D, which has therefore been suggested as therapeutic target.
Vitamin D undergoes hepatic 25-hydroxylation, rendering the liver critical to the metabolic activation of this vitamin. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in CLD patients, and vitamin D levels are inversely related to the severity of CLD.
Declining levels of carrier proteins such as albumin and vitamin D-binding protein might also be critical in CLD.
Intervention studies report improvements of CLD following supplementation, and benefits to health outcomes in particular with respect to hepatitis C virus infection have recently been documented.
CONTENT: We discuss vitamin D sources, functions and metabolism with a focus on the inherent complications of analytical measurements, such as the interference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D C-3 epimers. Global discrepancies in the definition of optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are covered, and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in CLD is reviewed. We also address the functional mechanisms underlying this deficiency, and refer to associations between genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism and CLD. Lastly, we consider the health implications of a vitamin D deficiency in CLD and consider therapeutic options.
SUMMARY: Herein, we focus on the epidemiological and functional relationships between vitamin D deficiency and CLD, followed by a discussion of the potential implications for therapeutic interventions.
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
The source of the experiencePubMed
Concepts, symbols and science items
Activities and commonsteps
Hepatitis virus infection