Observations placeholder

Home-based deep breathing for depression in patients with coronary heart disease



Type of Spiritual Experience


A description of the experience

Home-based deep breathing for depression in patients with coronary heart disease: a randomised controlled trial - Chung LJ, Tsai PS, Liu BY, Chou KR, Lin WH, Shyu YK, Wang MY; Graduate Institute of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

OBJECTIVES:  The primary aim of this study was to examine the effect of a home-based deep-breathing training programme on depressive symptoms as compared with a control condition (i.e., weekly telephone support) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).

DESIGN:  This efficacy trial used a randomised controlled, parallel group design.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS:  A total of 62 CHD patients with a Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) >10 were randomised to receive either home-based deep-breathing training (experimental group, n=28) or weekly telephone support (control group, n=34). Both participants and data assessors were blinded to the study hypothesis. The primary outcome measure was the change in the self-reported depressive symptom severity, measured by the BDI-II. The secondary outcome was the change in the Patient Health Questionnaure-9 (PHQ-9)-assessed depressive symptom severity. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and post-test in both groups. For the experimental group, depressive symptoms were also assessed at the end of the first 2 weeks of training.

RESULTS:  The post-test BDI-II and PHQ-9 were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group … Examining the changes in BDI-II and PHQ-9 within the experimental group by the repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that both measures of depressive symptoms decreased significantly over time….. The percentage of participants with a BDI-II >or=17 decreased over time from 28.6% at baseline, and 17.9% during treatment, to 10.7% post-test.

CONCLUSIONS:  Home-based deep-breathing training is effective in reducing depressive symptoms as compared with telephone support in patients with CHD.

The source of the experience


Concepts, symbols and science items



Science Items

Activities and commonsteps


Circular breathing